全息凝视雷达系统技术与发展应用综述

郭瑞 张月 田彪 肖钰 胡俊 徐世友 陈曾平

郭瑞, 张月, 田彪, 等. 全息凝视雷达系统技术与发展应用综述[J]. 雷达学报, 2023, 12(2): 389–411. doi: 10.12000/JR22153
引用本文: 郭瑞, 张月, 田彪, 等. 全息凝视雷达系统技术与发展应用综述[J]. 雷达学报, 2023, 12(2): 389–411. doi: 10.12000/JR22153
GUO Rui, ZHANG Yue, TIAN Biao, et al. Review of the technology, development and applications of holographic staring radar[J]. Journal of Radars, 2023, 12(2): 389–411. doi: 10.12000/JR22153
Citation: GUO Rui, ZHANG Yue, TIAN Biao, et al. Review of the technology, development and applications of holographic staring radar[J]. Journal of Radars, 2023, 12(2): 389–411. doi: 10.12000/JR22153

全息凝视雷达系统技术与发展应用综述

doi: 10.12000/JR22153
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(U2133216),深圳市科技计划资助(GXWD20201231165807008, 20200828174754001, KQTD20190929172704911),深圳市基础研究资助项目(JCYJ20180307151430655),广东省科技技术项目(2019ZT08X751)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    郭 瑞,博士,助理教授,主要研究方向为数字阵列雷达技术、阵列信号处理技术等

    张 月,博士,副教授,主要研究方向为全息雷达技术、宽带数字化技术等

    肖 钰,博士,副教授,主要研究方向为雷达天线、毫米波相控阵技术等

    胡 俊,博士,助理教授,主要研究方向为先进探测系统、智能信号处理技术等

    徐世友,博士,教授,博士生导师,主要研究方向为宽带雷达成像、自动目标识别、信息融合、多功能数字阵列雷达等

    陈曾平,教授,博士生导师,主要研究方向为空间态势感知、软件化雷达探测、宽带成像识别等

    通讯作者:

    陈曾平 chenzengp@mail.sysu.edu.cn

  • 责任主编:杨建宇 Corresponding Editor: YANG Jianyu
  • 中图分类号: TN958

Review of the Technology, Development and Applications of Holographic Staring Radar

Funds: The National Natural Science Foundation of China (U2133216), Shenzhen Science and Technology Program (GXWD20201231165807008, 20200828174754001, KQTD20190929172704911), Shenzhen Fundamental Research Program (JCYJ20180307151430655), Guangdong Provinical Science and Technology Program (2019ZT08X751)
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  • 摘要: 全息凝视雷达是一种同时覆盖全空域、同时多功能的阵列雷达,该文首先明确全息凝视雷达定义,并概述全息凝视雷达特点、性能优势以及处理难点;然后,较为全面地介绍了全息凝视雷达的发展历程,归纳了当前的主要应用方向,并对中山大学在全息凝视雷达系统研究方面的进展情况进行了介绍,给出了实际场景下目标探测结果,展示了全息凝视雷达在低空目标监视等方面的应用潜力;接着较为全面地介绍了全息凝视雷达相关关键技术的研究进展,包括系统设计、收发波束控制、目标积累检测以及参数估计等方面;最后总结了全息凝视雷达的发展趋势。

     

  • 图  1  全息凝视雷达体制概念示意图

    Figure  1.  Schematic diagram of holographic staring radar

    图  2  OLPI雷达[12]

    Figure  2.  OLPI radar[12]

    图  3  Aveillant公司全息雷达系统[24-30]

    Figure  3.  Holographic staring radars of Aveillant[24-30]

    图  4  QinetiQ公司全息雷达系统[41-43]

    Figure  4.  Holographic staring radars of QinetiQ[41-43]

    图  5  OMEGA360全息凝视雷达[44-46]

    Figure  5.  OMEGA360 holographic staring radar[44-46]

    图  6  L波段全息凝视雷达

    Figure  6.  L band holographic staring radar

    图  7  S波段全息凝视雷达

    Figure  7.  S band holographic staring radar

    图  8  全息凝视雷达机场鸟情感知试验

    Figure  8.  Birds detection trials in airport

    图  9  集群目标速度分辨结果

    Figure  9.  Group target detection results

    图  10  针对边防应用的外场探测试验

    Figure  10.  Target detection trials for frontier defense applications

    图  11  海面目标探测试验

    Figure  11.  Sea surface target detection trials

    图  12  多波束凝视成像示意图[75]

    Figure  12.  Schematic diagram of staring digital multiple beams SAR[75]

    图  13  澳大利亚HILOW超视距雷达试验发射阵列[81]

    Figure  13.  Photograph of the OTHR transmitter array used in the HILOW experiment[81]

    图  14  自动驾驶雷达波束示意图[1]

    Figure  14.  The illumination beam and multiple receive beams of a vehicular radar system[1]

    图  15  亨索尔特公司Twinvis被动雷达[1]

    Figure  15.  The Hensoldt Twinvis passive radar system[1]

    图  16  全息凝视雷达信号处理流程

    Figure  16.  The signal processing diagram of holographic staring radars

    图  17  波束展宽前后的波束图[89]

    Figure  17.  Beam before and after broadening[89]

    图  18  混合积累原理示意图[143]

    Figure  18.  Diagram of the principle of hybrid integration[143]

    图  19  复杂阵地低空目标俯仰角估计模型[157]

    Figure  19.  Multipath signal model for locating low-altitude small target in complex terrain environment[157]

    图  20  雷达多工作模式示意图[166]

    Figure  20.  Schematic diagram of multifunctional radar[166]

    图  21  分布式全息雷达协同探测

    Figure  21.  Schematic diagram of distributed holographic staring radar

    表  1  相控阵雷达、全息凝视雷达和MIMO雷达对比

    Table  1.   The comparison of phased array radar, holographic staring radar and MIMO radar

    对比项相控阵雷达全息凝视雷达MIMO雷达
    工作模式示意图[7]
    发射波束特点单个集中波束发射发射宽波束多个发射天线发射分集波形
    接收波束特点单个集中波束接收同时多波束接收同时多波束接收
    相同发射总功率、
    积累时间输出信噪比[6,7]
    SNRPASNRPA/e (e为波束展宽倍数)SNRPA/N (N为发射阵元数)
    角度分辨率[6]由接收天线孔径决定由接收天线孔径决定由发射阵列与接收阵列卷积得到虚拟阵列孔径决定
    优势相同孔径发射增益大多目标跟踪能力强、同时多功能、
    多普勒分辨率高、射频隐身性高等
    多目标跟踪能力强、虚拟孔径扩展测角精度高、
    多普勒分辨率高、射频隐身性高等
    劣势相同孔径观测范围小相同孔径发射增益低、计算量大、
    不适合单目标跟踪
    相同孔径发射增益低、计算量大、
    脉冲综合距离副瓣高、不适合单目标跟踪
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  Aveillant公司全息雷达系统参数[24-30]

    Table  2.   Basic technical parameters of Aveillant's holographic radar[24-30]

    参数名称原理样机Gamekeeper 16UTheia 64AQUAD (128)
    频率L波段L波段L波段L波段
    带宽~2 MHz~2 MHz~2 MHz~2 MHz
    发射功率~1 kW~1 kW~10 kW\
    接收通道数8×84×1632×8\
    方位覆盖范围90°90°90°360°
    俯仰覆盖范围90°30°90°90°
    PRF\~7.5 kHz~3.8 kHz\
    更新率\~0.25 s~0.5 s~1 s
    探测距离5 n mile (@RCS 1 m2)5 km (@RCS 0.01 m2)20 n mile (@RCS 0.01 m2)40 n mile (@RCS 0.01 m2)
    探测距离精度\\<50 m\
    探测方位精度<250 m
    速度分辨率<0.5 m/s
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  中山大学全息雷达系统参数

    Table  3.   Basic parameters of the holographic staring radar developed by SYSU

    参数名称L波段全息凝视雷达S波段全息凝视雷达
    频率L波段S波段
    带宽2~16 MHz2~10 MHz
    发射功率~500 W~400 W
    接收通道数8×84×16
    方位覆盖范围90°90°
    俯仰覆盖范围22.5°, 30.0°, 45.0°, 60.0°
    (可设定)
    30°
    PRF~5 kHz~7.5 kHz
    更新率~1 s~1 s
    探测距离10 km
    (@RCS 0.01 m2)
    8 km
    (@RCS 0.01 m2)
    探测距离精度<10 m<15 m
    方位角分辨精度<1.5°<0.75°
    速度分辨率<0.1 m/s<0.05 m/s
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2022-07-18
  • 修回日期:  2022-10-20
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-11-02
  • 刊出日期:  2023-04-28

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