单光子计数太赫兹雷达直接探测方法与性能研究

刘康 武烘萱 易俊 王宏强 罗成高

刘康, 武烘萱, 易俊, 等. 单光子计数太赫兹雷达直接探测方法与性能研究[J]. 雷达学报(中英文), 待出版. doi: 10.12000/JR24012
引用本文: 刘康, 武烘萱, 易俊, 等. 单光子计数太赫兹雷达直接探测方法与性能研究[J]. 雷达学报(中英文), 待出版. doi: 10.12000/JR24012
LIU Kang, WU Hongxuan, YI Jun, et al. Research on direct detection method and performance of single-photon counting terahertz radar[J]. Journal of Radars, in press. doi: 10.12000/JR24012
Citation: LIU Kang, WU Hongxuan, YI Jun, et al. Research on direct detection method and performance of single-photon counting terahertz radar[J]. Journal of Radars, in press. doi: 10.12000/JR24012

单光子计数太赫兹雷达直接探测方法与性能研究

doi: 10.12000/JR24012
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(62035014, 62105356, 61921001)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    刘 康,博士,教授,主要研究方向为电磁涡旋雷达成像技术、新体制雷达成像技术等

    武烘萱,硕士,助理工程师,主要研究方向为雷达信号处理

    易 俊,博士,助理研究员,主要研究方向为太赫兹雷达高灵敏探测技术、太赫兹雷达成像信号处理等

    王宏强,博士,研究员, 主要研究方向为太赫兹雷达目标特性、太赫兹雷达成像技术等

    罗成高,博士,副教授,主要研究方向为太赫兹探测通信一体化技术、太赫兹孔径编码雷达技术等

    通讯作者:

    易俊 Junyi_nudt@163.com

  • 责任主编:朱丹 Corresponding Editor: ZHU Dan
  • 中图分类号: TN95

Research on Direct Detection Method and Performance of Single-photon Counting Terahertz Radar

Funds: The National Natural Science Foundation of China (62035014, 62105356, 61921001)
More Information
  • 摘要: 针对远距离非合作目标探测,现有太赫兹雷达由于受到发射机功率低、大气衰减效应等因素影响,其作用距离有限,难以满足对目标的预警探测应用需求。为提升太赫兹雷达探测能力,该文研究了基于单光子探测技术的目标超灵敏探测方法,利用单光子探测器替代传统雷达接收机,有望显著提升太赫兹雷达的作用距离。首先,该文分析了太赫兹单光子雷达信号光子数的统计规律,从微观角度阐述了目标的回波特性,进一步,结合超导量子电容探测器的特点,建立了太赫兹单光子目标探测模型;此外,推导得到太赫兹单光子雷达目标检测性能数学表达式,并通过仿真实验对目标检测性能进行了验证和分析,获得了雷达检测性能曲线;最后开展了时间分辨太赫兹光子计数原理验证实验,通过回波脉冲计数的方式实现了目标高精度测距。该文工作将为太赫兹频段超灵敏探测技术及单光子雷达系统的研究与发展提供支撑。

     

  • 图  1  太赫兹单光子雷达直接探测方式工作流程

    Figure  1.  Workflow of the direct detection method of terahertz single-photon radar

    图  2  超导量子电容探测器工作原理

    Figure  2.  Operation principle of QCD

    图  3  单光子雷达系统工作时序

    Figure  3.  Working sequence of single-photon radar

    图  4  光子计数积累过程示意图

    Figure  4.  Schematic diagram of photon counting accumulation process

    图  5  一个子区间$ \Delta t $包含q个时隙

    Figure  5.  A sub-interval $ \Delta t $ contains q intervals

    图  6  脉冲飞行时间直方图

    Figure  6.  The time-of-flight histogram

    图  7  探测模型的3种情况

    Figure  7.  The detection model divided into the three cases

    图  8  死时间与回波位置影响下的各个时间区间内探测概率$ {p_{\text{d}}} $的分布

    Figure  8.  The distribution of $ {p_{\text{d}}} $ in each interval under different $ {t_{\text{d}}} $ and $ {t_{\text{r}}} $

    图  9  脉冲回波前沿在所对应子区间的位置示意图

    Figure  9.  Schematic diagram of the position of the pulse echo front in its corresponding sub-interval

    图  10  检测概率$ {P_{\text{D}}} $随比值$ {t_{\text{f}}}/\Delta t $的变化关系

    Figure  10.  The detection probability $ {P_{\text{D}}} $ as a function of ratio $ {t_{\text{f}}}/\Delta t $

    图  11  目标检测概率随所划分区间取值$ \Delta t $的变化趋势

    Figure  11.  Detection probability as a function of $ \Delta t $ with different simulations

    图  12  检测概率随脉冲飞行时间的变化曲线(td=3 μs)

    Figure  12.  Detection probability as a function of $ {t_{\text{r}}} $ (td=3 μs)

    图  13  单脉冲探测时检测概率和虚警概率随信号平均光子数的变化曲线。((a)、(b)和(c)中曲线分别以噪声光子率$ {\lambda _{\text{n}}} $$ 0.01{\text{ MHz}} $(点划线),$ 0.05{\text{ MHz}} $(划线),$ 0.1{\text{ MHz}} $(实线)区分;(d)、(e)和(f)中曲线分别以信噪比$ {R_{{\text{SN}}}} $:1(点划线),2(划线),10(实线)区分。)

    Figure  13.  The detection probability and false alarm probability versus the mean signal photons$ {N_{\text{s}}} $. (The curves Fig. (a), Fig. (b) and Fig. (c) are differentiated by the noise photon rate function $ {\lambda _{\text{n}}} $marked with $ 0.01{\text{ MHz}} $ (dotted line), $ 0.05{\text{ MHz}} $ (dotted line), $ 0.1{\text{ MHz}} $ (solid line); The curves from Fig. (d), Fig. (e) and Fig. (f) are differentiated by the signal to noise ratio $ {R_{{\text{SN}}}} $ marked with 1 (dotted line), 2 (dotted line), 10 (solid line).)

    图  14  单脉冲探测时检测概率(PD)和虚警概率(PFA)随信号平均光子数的变化曲线

    Figure  14.  The detection probability (PD) and false alarm probability (PFA) versus the mean signal photons $ {N_{\text{s}}} $

    图  15  给定$ {P_{{\text{FA}}}} $情况下最小可检测信噪比$ {({R_{{\text{SN}}}})_{\min }} $随脉冲积累数M的变化曲线

    Figure  15.  The $ {({R_{{\text{SN}}}})_{\min }} $ as a function of the pulse accumulation number M under different $ {P_{{\text{FA}}}} $

    图  16  最小可检测信噪比$ {({R_{{\text{SN}}}})_{\min }} $随检测概率$ {P_{\text{D}}} $的变化关系

    Figure  16.  $ {({R_{{\text{SN}}}})_{\min }} $ as a function of $ {P_{\text{D}}} $

    图  17  基于光子计数的直接探测实验系统框图

    Figure  17.  Schematic of the direct detection experimental system based on photon counting

    图  18  不同积累时间下单光子计数器输出的时间分辨统计直方图

    Figure  18.  Time resolution histogram for the output of the single-photon counter in different accumulated time

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2024-01-27
  • 修回日期:  2024-04-27
  • 网络出版日期:  2024-05-30

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