星源照射双/多基地SAR成像

武俊杰 孙稚超 吕争 杨建宇 李财品 孙华瑞 陈天夫 赵良波 任航 庄超然

武俊杰, 孙稚超, 吕争, 等. 星源照射双/多基地SAR成像[J]. 雷达学报, 2023, 12(1): 13–35. doi: 10.12000/JR22213
引用本文: 武俊杰, 孙稚超, 吕争, 等. 星源照射双/多基地SAR成像[J]. 雷达学报, 2023, 12(1): 13–35. doi: 10.12000/JR22213
WU Junjie, SUN Zhichao, LV Zheng, et al. Bi/multi-static synthetic aperture radar using spaceborne illuminator[J]. Journal of Radars, 2023, 12(1): 13–35. doi: 10.12000/JR22213
Citation: WU Junjie, SUN Zhichao, LV Zheng, et al. Bi/multi-static synthetic aperture radar using spaceborne illuminator[J]. Journal of Radars, 2023, 12(1): 13–35. doi: 10.12000/JR22213

星源照射双/多基地SAR成像

doi: 10.12000/JR22213
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(61901088, 61922023, 61801099),北京市科技新星项目(Z201100006820103)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    武俊杰,教授,博士生导师,研究方向为合成孔径雷达成像、双/多基合成孔径雷达、雷达信号处理等

    孙稚超,副教授,研究方向为最优化方法及其应用、双/多基合成孔径雷达、星载合成孔径雷达信号处理等

    吕 争,高级工程师,研究方向为微波遥感卫星总体设计和遥感图像应用

    杨建宇,教授,博士生导师,研究方向为雷达信号处理、合成孔径雷达成像等

    李财品,高级工程师,研究方向为星载合成孔径雷达成像、雷达系统设计等

    孙华瑞, 博士生,研究方向为双基SAR成像算法等

    陈天夫,博士生,研究方向为星源照射双基SAR成像算法、多模式SAR成像等

    赵良波,研究员,研究方向为微波遥感卫星总体设计

    任 航,博士生,研究方向为双/多基合成孔径雷达、压缩感知理论、优化理论和算法等

    庄超然,硕士,工程师,主要负责民用陆地观测卫星运控工作,制定卫星运行及综合管控策略

    通讯作者:

    武俊杰 junjie_wu@uestc.edu.cn

  • 责任主编:曾涛 Corresponding Editor: ZENG Tao
  • 中图分类号: TN985

Bi/multi-static Synthetic Aperture Radar Using Spaceborne Illuminator

Funds: The National Natural Science Foundation of China (61901088, 61922023, 61801099), The Beijing Science and Technology New Star Project (Z201100006820103)
More Information
  • 摘要: 星源照射双/多基地合成孔径雷达(SAR),采用卫星发射,卫星、临近空间、飞机、地面等平台接收,实现对地海面场景和目标的高分辨成像。该技术具有可成像范围广、隐蔽性好、抗干扰能力强等优点,且可以通过波束调控实现扫描、聚束、滑动聚束等多种组合成像模式,从而获取更加丰富的成像信息,具有十分广阔的民用和军事应用前景。目前,国内外针对星源照射双/多基地SAR成像技术开展了多年的研究,积累了诸多研究成果。该文分别从系统组成、构型方法、回波模型、成像方法、收发同步与试验验证等方面对该技术进行阐述与分析,同时对相关的研究工作进行较系统的回顾,并展望了星源照射双/多基地SAR成像技术未来的发展方向。

     

  • 图  1  星源照射双/多基地SAR系统

    Figure  1.  The configuration of bi/multi-static SAR system with spaceborne illuminators

    图  2  星源照射双/多基地 SAR 系统分类

    Figure  2.  The classification of bi/multi-static SAR system with spaceborne illuminators

    图  3  地面距离分辨率与几何构型的关系[14]

    Figure  3.  The relationship between ground range resolutions and bistatic configurations[14]

    图  4  地面方位分辨率与几何构型的关系[14]

    Figure  4.  The relationship between ground azimuth resolutions and bistatic configurations[14]

    图  5  HH极化星机双基SAR成像信噪比特性[14]

    Figure  5.  The property of SNR for spaceborne/airborne bistatic SAR with HH polarization[14]

    图  6  GEO星机双基SAR的等距离等多普勒线[23]

    Figure  6.  The contour of range-Doppler for geosynchronous spaceborne/airborne bistatic SAR[23]

    图  7  GEO星机多角度成像模式示意图[25]

    Figure  7.  The diagram of multi-angle imaging modes for geosynchronous spaceborne/airborne bistatic SAR[25]

    图  8  星地试验成像结果[49]

    Figure  8.  The imaging result of spaceborne and ground-based bistatic SAR[49]

    图  9  TerraSAR-X/F-SAR双基SAR成像结果[61]

    Figure  9.  The imaging result of TerraSAR-X/F-SAR bistatic SAR[61]

    图  10  稀疏恢复效果对比[64]

    Figure  10.  Comparison of sparse reconstruction results[64]

    图  11  GNSS星载双基SAR直达波同步系统[5]

    Figure  11.  The direct-signal synchronous system for bistatic SAR with GNSS illuminators[5]

    图  12  海面动目标成像结果比较[79]

    Figure  12.  Comparison of the imaging results of the distributed moving target[79]

    图  13  GEO SA-BiSAR的非稀疏分布式成像场景模拟[82]

    Figure  13.  Nonsparse distributed imaging scene simulations for GEO SA-BiSAR[82]

    图  14  SABRINA系统试验结果[84]

    Figure  14.  The test results of SABRINA system[84]

    图  15  德国DLR星机双基SAR试验成像结果[85]

    Figure  15.  Imaging results of German DLR spaceborne/airborne bistatic SAR experiment[85]

    图  16  德国FHR双基后视SAR成像结果[86]

    Figure  16.  Imaging results of German FHR bistatic SAR experiment with back-looking mode[86]

    图  17  美国圣地亚实验室星地双基SAR成像试验结果[87]

    Figure  17.  Imaging results of spaceborne and ground-based bistatic SAR experiment conducted by US Sandia laboratory Laboratory[87]

    图  18  单/双基成像结果对比[88]

    Figure  18.  Comparison of monostatic/bistatic imaging results[88]

    图  19  单通道和5通道DBF获取的图像对比[90]

    Figure  19.  Comparison of imaging results between single channel DBF and five channel DBF[90]

    图  20  成像结果对比[56]

    Figure  20.  Comparison of imaging results[56]

    图  21  成像结果与光学遥感图像对比[91]

    Figure  21.  Comparison of imaging results with optical remote sensing images[91]

    图  22  伯明翰大学GNSS星载/机载双基SAR成像试验结果[4]

    Figure  22.  The results of GNSS spaceborne/airborne bistatic SAR experiment conducted by Birmingham University[4]

    图  23  图像相干融合结果[95]

    Figure  23.  Results of coherent fusion image[95]

    图  24  伯明翰大学和国防科技大学GNSS星地双基SAR成像试验结果[96]

    Figure  24.  Spaceborne and ground-based bistatic SAR experiment conducted by Birmingham University and National University of Defense Technology[96]

    图  25  光学图像与成像结果的对比[98]

    Figure  25.  Comparison between the optical image and the radar image[98]

    表  1  GEO星机双基SAR系统仿真参数

    Table  1.   The simulation parameters of geosynchronous spaceborne/airborne bistatic SAR

    系统参数 数值平台参数 数值
    载频1.25 GHzGEO轨道离心率0.07
    带宽100 MHzGEO轨道倾角53°
    峰值功率5 kWGEO半长轴长度42164.17 km
    发射天线增益50 dB接收站速度200 m/s
    接收天线增益20.8 dB接收站高度10 km
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  星源照射双/多基SAR典型系统/试验介绍

    Table  2.   Typical system introduction of bi/multi-static SAR system with spaceborne illuminators

    类别平台组合典型系统/试验国家研制状态优劣势与应用价值
    发射接收
    同构SAR卫星SAR卫星陆探1号中国在轨运行可实现高精度干涉测量,
    用于地表DEM生成与运动目标检测等
    TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X德国在轨运行
    TanDEM-L德国正在研制
    异构SAR卫星
    GNSS卫
    星等
    飞机、地
    面等
    挑战者号+CV990飞机美国验证了星机双基SAR成像可行性机载接收站:观测视角丰富、响应速度快
    地面接收站:感兴趣区域
    长时间观测
    GNSS卫星:全球覆盖,
    带宽与功率受限
    SAR卫星:大带宽、
    功率密度较高
    ERS-2/ENVISAT+地面固定站(SABRINA系统)西班牙星地双基干涉SAR试验
    TerraSAR-X+飞机
    (F-SAR/PAMIR)
    中国、德国、美国星机SAR成像试验
    遥感-1+地面固定站中国对比单双基成像结果
    TerraSAR-X +地面固定站中国DBF提升信噪比
    高分-3+飞机中国星机双基SAR成像试验
    GLONASS/GPS/Galileo +地面固定接收中国、英国GNSS星地双基SAR成像试验
    GLONASS+飞机英国、中国GNSS星机双基SAR成像试验
    北斗-2+地面固定接收中国GNSS星地双基SAR成像试验
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-10-30
  • 修回日期:  2023-02-18
  • 网络出版日期:  2023-02-27
  • 刊出日期:  2023-02-28

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