弹载雷达成像技术发展现状与趋势

李亚超 王家东 张廷豪 宋炫

李亚超, 王家东, 张廷豪, 等. 弹载雷达成像技术发展现状与趋势[J]. 雷达学报, 2022, 11(6): 943–973. doi: 10.12000/JR22119
引用本文: 李亚超, 王家东, 张廷豪, 等. 弹载雷达成像技术发展现状与趋势[J]. 雷达学报, 2022, 11(6): 943–973. doi: 10.12000/JR22119
LI Yachao, WANG Jiadong, ZHANG Tinghao, et al. Present situation and prospect of missile-borne radar imaging technology[J]. Journal of Radars, 2022, 11(6): 943–973. doi: 10.12000/JR22119
Citation: LI Yachao, WANG Jiadong, ZHANG Tinghao, et al. Present situation and prospect of missile-borne radar imaging technology[J]. Journal of Radars, 2022, 11(6): 943–973. doi: 10.12000/JR22119

弹载雷达成像技术发展现状与趋势

doi: 10.12000/JR22119
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划(2018YFB2202500),国家自然科学基金(62171337, 62101396),陕西省重点研发计划(2017KW-ZD-12),陕西省杰出青年基金(S2020-JC-JQ-0056),中央高校基本科研基金(XJS212205)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    李亚超,教授,博士生导师,研究方向为合成孔径雷达(SAR)/逆SAR (ISAR)成像、弹载SAR成像、地面运动目标检测(GMTI)、SAR图像的匹配和定向、基于现场可编程门阵列(FPGA)和数字信号处理(DSP)技术的实时信号处理以及分布式雷达

    王家东,副教授,研究方向为雷达信号处理、合成孔径雷达和逆合成孔径雷达成像

    张廷豪,博士生,研究方向为单/双基地合成孔径雷达(SAR)成像与运动补偿

    宋 炫,博士生,研究方向为双基地合成孔径雷达(SAR)前视成像技术

    通讯作者:

    李亚超 ycli@mail.xidian.edu.cn

  • 责任主编:王勇 Corresponding Editor: WANG Yong
  • 中图分类号: TN95

Present Situation and Prospect of Missile-borne Radar Imaging Technology

Funds: The National Key R&D Program of China (2018YFB2202500), The National Natural Science Foundation of China (62171337, 62101396), The Key R&D Program of Shaanxi Province (2017KW-ZD-12), The Shaanxi Province Funds for Distinguished Young Youths (S2020-JC-JQ-0056), The Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (XJS212205)
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  • 摘要: 弹载合成孔径雷达(SAR)可对观测区域进行二维高分辨率成像,获得丰富的地貌特征以及目标的尺寸、形状特征,进而选择打击点并提高打击精度和效率。与传统的机载/星载SAR成像体制相比,弹载SAR由于其探测距离远、大机动曲线突防和多平台协同作战的特点,给雷达成像技术带来了新的挑战:导弹末制导阶段处于二维甚至三维加速的大斜视工作模式,飞行轨迹与传统的SAR成像模式不同,这会带来距离方位的严重耦合,成像质量退化严重;在攻击飞行段,导弹的天线波束直接指向目标区域,弹载SAR将工作在前视状态,传统的SAR成像技术难以获取目标二维高分辨图像。针对弹载SAR存在的这些问题,该文立足弹载SAR作战需求,从曲线轨大斜视成像、前视成像和协同成像方面介绍了弹载雷达成像的关键技术和发展现状,展望未来弹载雷达成像技术的发展趋势。

     

  • 图  1  弹载雷达成像作战示意图

    Figure  1.  Radar imaging operation diagram on missile

    图  2  双基前视成像示意图

    Figure  2.  Schematic diagram of bibasal forward vision imaging

    图  3  MESRM成像结果对比[15]

    Figure  3.  Comparison of MESRM imaging results[15]

    图  4  弹载曲线大斜视SAR成像结果[17]

    Figure  4.  The results of high strabismus SAR imaging[17]

    图  5  时变加速度对频谱的影响示意图

    Figure  5.  Schematic diagram of the effect of time-varying acceleration on the spectrum

    图  6  EPERM和ASERM的斜距误差和相位误差结果对比

    Figure  6.  Comparison of the results of slant distance error and phase error of EPERM and ASERM

    图  7  距离方位空变耦合示意图

    Figure  7.  Schematic diagram of range azimuth spatial variant coupling

    图  8  高速高机动平台大斜视成像结果[20]

    Figure  8.  High squint imaging results of high speed and high mobility platform[20]

    图  9  基于子孔径成像的ω-k算法成像结果[21]

    Figure  9.  Imaging results of algorithm ω-k based on sub aperture imaging[21]

    图  10  提出的IMF-PFA算法成像结果[19]

    Figure  10.  Imaging results of proposed algorithm IMF-PFA[19]

    图  11  基于修改的子孔径处理算法得到的大斜视SAR图像[25]

    Figure  11.  High squint SAR image based on modified subaperture processing algorithm[25]

    图  12  50°大斜视实测数据处理结果[26]

    Figure  12.  Processing results of measured data of 50° high strabismus[26]

    图  13  大斜视曲线轨迹SAR成像处理流程

    Figure  13.  High squint curve trajectory SAR imaging processing flow

    图  14  单基大斜视角(75°)成像实测数据实时处理结果

    Figure  14.  Real time processing results of single base large squint angle (75°) imaging measured data

    图  15  BP和FFBP成像结果对比[30]

    Figure  15.  Comparison of BP and FFBP imaging results[30]

    图  16  AFBP大斜视成像结果[31]

    Figure  16.  AFBP strabismus imaging results[31]

    图  17  FFBP和CFBP成像结果对比[32]

    Figure  17.  Comparison of FFBP and CFBP imaging results[32]

    图  18  不同时域成像算法处理流程

    Figure  18.  Processing flow of different time-domain imaging algorithms

    图  19  微波雷达关联成像流程框图与工作示意图[42]

    Figure  19.  Flow block diagram and working diagram of microwave radar correlation imaging[42]

    图  20  微波关联仿真三维成像结果[62]

    Figure  20.  3D imaging results of microwave correlation simulation[62]

    图  21  微波关联仿真二维成像结果[62]

    Figure  21.  2D imaging results of microwave correlation simulation[62]

    图  22  微波暗室单角反射器实验结果[64]

    Figure  22.  Experimental results of single corner reflector in microwave anechoic chamber[64]

    图  23  微波暗室多角反射器实验结果[64]

    Figure  23.  Experimental results of multi corner reflector in microwave anechoic chamber[64]

    图  24  室外实验结果[66]

    Figure  24.  Outdoor test results[66]

    图  25  解卷积算法流程图[68]

    Figure  25.  Flow chart of deconvolution integration method[68]

    图  26  回波信号方位向卷积模型[69]

    Figure  26.  Azimuth convolution model of echo signal[69]

    图  27  基于贝叶斯模型解卷积前视成像结果[79]

    Figure  27.  Forward looking imaging results based on Bayesian model deconvolution[79]

    图  28  基于广义高斯约束的贝叶斯前视超分辨成像结果[81]

    Figure  28.  Bayesian forward looking superresolution imaging results based on generalized gaussian constraints[81]

    图  29  单脉冲技术示意图

    Figure  29.  Schematic diagram of monopulse technology

    图  30  单脉冲成像流程图

    Figure  30.  Flow chart of monopulse imaging

    图  31  单脉冲自聚焦算法实验结果图[96]

    Figure  31.  Experimental results of monopulse self focusing algorithm[96]

    图  32  波束内同距离单元多点目标成像结果[96]

    Figure  32.  Multi point target imaging results of the same range unit in the beam[96]

    图  33  文献[99]的仿真试验点目标三维成像结果

    Figure  33.  3D imaging results of simulation test point target in Ref. [99]

    图  34  基于单脉冲三维成像的抗交叉眼干扰方法[101]

    Figure  34.  Anti-cross-eye jamming method based on monopulse pulse 3D imaging[101]

    图  35  国内首幅协同前视SAR实测数据成像结果[120]

    Figure  35.  First domestic real data forward looking Co-SAR imagery[120]

    图  36  北理工协同SAR实测数据成像结果[124]

    Figure  36.  Imaging results of measured SAR data of Beijing Institute of Technology[124]

    图  37  西电协同前视SAR实测数据成像结果

    Figure  37.  Imaging results of measured data of Xidian cooperative forward looking SAR

    图  38  协同时域FFBP算法流程图

    Figure  38.  Flow chart of collaborative time domain FFBP algorithm

    图  39  协同SAR成像FFBP处理结果图[127]

    Figure  39.  FFBP processing results of cooperative SAR imaging[127]

    图  40  CFFBP处理协同SAR实测数据结果[128]

    Figure  40.  CFFBP processing results of cooperative SAR measured data[128]

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2022-06-21
  • 修回日期:  2022-12-17
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-12-25
  • 刊出日期:  2022-12-28

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