微波光子集成芯片技术

钱广 钱坤 顾晓文 孔月婵 陈堂胜

钱广, 钱坤, 顾晓文, 等. 微波光子集成芯片技术[J]. 雷达学报, 2019, 8(2): 262–280. doi: 10.12000/JR19044
引用本文: 钱广, 钱坤, 顾晓文, 等. 微波光子集成芯片技术[J]. 雷达学报, 2019, 8(2): 262–280. doi: 10.12000/JR19044
QIAN Guang, QIAN Kun, GU Xiaowen, et al. Integrated chip technologies for microwave photonics[J]. Journal of Radars, 2019, 8(2): 262–280. doi: 10.12000/JR19044
Citation: QIAN Guang, QIAN Kun, GU Xiaowen, et al. Integrated chip technologies for microwave photonics[J]. Journal of Radars, 2019, 8(2): 262–280. doi: 10.12000/JR19044

微波光子集成芯片技术

doi: 10.12000/JR19044
基金项目: 国家部委基金
详细信息
    作者简介:

    钱广:钱 广(1985–),男,博士。现在南京电子器件研究所微波毫米波单片集成和模块电路重点实验室从事微波光子、激光雷达等方面的光电集成芯片、器件和组件研究。E-mail: chinaqgll@163.com

    顾晓文(1989–),男,硕士。现在南京电子器件研究所微波毫米波单片集成和模块电路重点实验室从事微波光子集成器件等方面研究

    孔月婵(1982–),女,博士。现为南京电子器件研究所微波毫米波单片集成和模块电路重点实验室研究员级高工。主要研究方向为半导体器件物理及异质异构集成技术等

    陈堂胜(1964–),男,首席科学家。主要研究方向为半导体器件物理、工艺及异质集成技术等

    通讯作者:

    钱广 chinaqgll@163.com

  • 中图分类号: TN256

Integrated Chip Technologies for Microwave Photonics

Funds: The National Ministries Foundation
More Information
  • 摘要: 微波光子集成芯片技术是微波光子雷达的重要支撑技术,不仅可以实现器件的多功能化,缩小微波光子雷达的体积,还可以大大提升微波光子雷达的稳定性与可靠性。该文介绍了目前常用的InP基、Si基和铌酸锂基等材料体系及其异质异构集成的光子集成芯片技术和可用于微波光子混合集成的光电集成芯片技术,并展望了未来发展趋势。

     

  • 图  1  InP基大规模光子集成芯片[11]

    Figure  1.  InP-based large-scale photonic integrated chip[11]

    图  2  典型InP基集成光子器件芯片[712]

    Figure  2.  Typical InP-based photonic integrated chips[712]

    图  3  典型InP基光子器件光波导结构示意图[11]

    Figure  3.  The optical waveguide structure of typical InP-based photonic devices[11]

    图  4  基于多次外延技术的InP基光子器件单片集成工艺[11]

    Figure  4.  Monolithic integration of InP-based photonic devices based on the multi-epitaxial growth[11]

    图  5  典型InP基光子器件模斑转换器[1316]

    Figure  5.  Typical spot-size converter of InP-based photonic devices[1316]

    图  6  Si基光子器件

    Figure  6.  Si-based photonic devices

    图  7  Si基集成OEO芯片[41]

    Figure  7.  Si-based integrated OEO chip[41]

    图  8  Si基光子器件

    Figure  8.  Si-based photonic devices

    图  9  SiN光子器件

    Figure  9.  SiN photonic devices

    图  10  LiNbO3基集成光子芯片

    Figure  10.  LiNbO3-based integrated photonic chip

    图  11  新型集成光子器件

    Figure  11.  New integrated photonic devices

    图  12  InP-Si光子集成器件

    Figure  12.  InP-Si integrated photonic devices

    图  13  传统LiNbO3 (LN)光波导和常用LiNbO3-Si混合集成光波导结构示意图[94]

    Figure  13.  Structural diagrams of traditional LiNbO3 optical waveguide and common LiNbO3-Si hybrid integrated optical waveguides[94]

    图  14  基于Si基LiNbO3薄膜的电光调制器[97]

    Figure  14.  Electro-optic modulator based on Si-based LiNbO3 film[97]

    图  15  Si-LiNbO3混合集成电光调制器[98]

    Figure  15.  Si-LiNbO3 hybrid integrated electro-optic modulator[98]

    图  16  基于PWB技术的光子异质异构集成[104]

    Figure  16.  Photonic heterogeneous integration based on PWB technology[104]

    图  17  基于引线互连的光电混合集成接收器芯片及模块[130]

    Figure  17.  Hybrid optoelectronic integrated receiver chip and module based on wire bonding[130]

    图  18  InP基周期分段型IQ电光调制器与驱动电路芯片的引线互连[132]

    Figure  18.  Hybrid optoelectronic integrated between the InP-based IQ modulator and the driver circuit based on wire bonding[132]

    图  19  Si基光电单片集成[133]

    Figure  19.  Si-based optoelectronic monolithic integration[133]

    图  20  InP基光电单片集成[134]

    Figure  20.  InP-based optoelectronic monolithic integration[134]

    图  21  InP-Si光电异质集成[135]

    Figure  21.  InP-Si hybrid optoelectronic integration[135]

    图  22  多功能集成微波光子收发前端芯片概念框架[6]

    Figure  22.  Conceptual structure of multifunctional integrated microwave photonic transceiver chip[6]

    表  1  报道的一些集成光子器件及性能

    Table  1.   Some reported integrated photonic devices and their performances

    材料 时间 第一作者国籍 器件 指标
    InP 1999 The Netherlands 波束形成[105] 通道:1×16,插损:28±1.0 dB,相位动态范围:360°
    2004 Germany 波导型PD[106] 带宽:100 GHz,响应度:0.66 A/W
    2010 USA OPLL[107] 带宽:300 MHz
    2011 USA 可编程微波光子滤波器[108] 带宽:1.9~14 GHz, SFDR: 86.3 dB×Hz2/3
    2013 China DFB激光器阵列[109] 通道数:4
    2014 Germany 平衡PD[110] 带宽:80 GHz,响应度:0.5 A/W
    2016 Germany DFB+IQ电光调制器[111] 带宽:43 GHz,耦合损耗:0.1 dB
    2017 Sweden 外调制激光器[112] 带宽:100 GHz,消光比:~30 dB
    2017 Japan IQ调制器[113] 带宽:>67 GHz,半波电压:1.5 V,消光比:~30 dB
    2017 China AWG+PD[114] 响应度:0.68 A/W,带宽:>16 GHz,通道数:13
    2017 Germany 波导型PD[115] 带宽:80 GHz,响应度:0.5 A/W
    2017 Germany 波导型平衡PD[116] 带宽:115 GHz,响应度:0.25 A/W
    2018 UK 开关阵列[10] 规模:4×4,串扰:–47 dB
    Si 2004 USA 调制器[29] 带宽:1 GHz,调制效率:8 V·cm,插损:15.3 dB,静态消光比:16 dB
    2005 USA 拉曼激光器[23] 波长:1.67 μm,线宽:80 MHz,边模抑制比:55 dB
    2007 USA 调制器[30] 带宽:30 GHz,速率:40 Gbit/s,动态消光比:1.1 dB
    2007 USA GeSi探测器[36] 带宽:31 GHz,响应度:0.89 A/W,暗电流:169 nA
    2009 USA GeSi探测器[37] 带宽:36.8 GHz,响应度:1.1 A/W
    2011 China 延时线[47] 延时量:–15~85 ps
    2012 USA GeSi激光器[26] 波长:1520~1700 nm,线宽:<1.2 nm,输出功率:>1 mW
    2012 UK 调制器[31] 消光比:3.1 dB,调制效率:2.8 V·cm,带宽:20 GHz
    2012 China 调制器[32] 消光比:3.9 dB@40 Gbit/s,调制效率:2.6 V·cm
    2012 China 延时线[48] 延时量:270 ps, FWHM=2.1 GHz
    2013 Australia 微波带阻滤波器[50] FWHM=247~840 MHz,抑制比:60 dB,中心频率范围:2~8 GHz
    2013 Singapore 调制器[33] 消光比:5.56 dB,调制效率:26.7 V·mm,带宽:25.6 GHz
    2013 China 微波带阻滤波器[44] 10 dB带宽:1.85~4.55 GHz,中心频率调谐范围:7~34 GHz
    2013 The Netherlands 波束形成网络[52] 规模:1×4,最大延时:236 ps,工作频率:10.70~12.75 GHz
    2016 China 开关阵列[45] 规模:16×16,串扰:–30 dB,开关时间:22 μm,插损:5.2 dB
    2017 Japan 调制器[34] 带宽:17 GHz,调制效率:0.8~1.86 V·cm
    2017 Canada 集成微波带通滤波器[42] FWHM=2.3 GHz,抑制比:17 dB,中心频率调谐范围:7~25 GHz
    2017 USA 波束形成网络[53] 规模:1×4,带宽:6 GHz,最大延时:209 ps
    2018 China 调制器[35] 带宽:60 GHz,速率:100 Gbit/s,调制效率1.4 V·cm,插损:5.4 dB
    2018 China GeSi探测器[40] 带宽:25 GHz,响应度:0.88 A/W
    2018 Canada 集成OEO[41] 相噪:–80 dBc/Hz,频率:2~8 GHz
    2018 China 微波带通滤波器[43] FWHM=170 MHz,抑制比:26.5 dB,中心频率调谐范围:2.0~18.4 GHz
    2018 USA 真延时[51] 损耗:0.89 dB/ns,延时量调谐范围:0~3.4 ns,带宽:10 GHz@500 ps
    LiNbO3 1998 Israel 调制器[117] 带宽:40 GHz,半波电压:4.2 V
    2007 Switzerland 可调谐谐振腔[118] R=100 μm, Q=4×103,清晰度F=5
    2009 USA 调制器[65] 带宽:~100 GHz,半波电压:7 V,插损:3.7 dB
    2010 China 1×2 Y分支光开关[119] 串扰:–30 dB
    Polymer 1997 USA 调制器[81] 带宽:113 GHz
    2002 USA 环形滤波器、调制器[76] Q=1.3×105,谐振调谐效率:0.82 GHz/V
    2015 China 开关阵列[120] 规模:1×32
    2016 China 调制器[121] 电光系数:50 pm/V,半波电压:1.94 V
    SPP 2010 Denmark 热光开关[122] 器件长度:<100 μm
    2015 Switzerland 天线+调制器 工作频率:60 GHz,转换效率:–25 dB
    2017 Switzerland 调制器[83] 器件长度:几十μm,带宽:>70 GHz
    2018 Switzerland 环形调制器[123] R=1 μm, Q=30, FSR≈115 nm
    Graphe 2011 USA 调制器[68] 光带宽:1.35~1.6 μm
    2013 Turkey 调制器[124] 光带宽:450 nm~2 μm
    2015 UK 调制器[125] 调制深度:>0.03 dB/μm
    Si-InP 2016 Belgium 激光器[90] 波长:1566 nm,边模抑制比:45 dB,波导输出光功率:6 mW,直调带宽:15 GHz
    2016 USA 探测器[126] 响应度:0.64 A/W,输出功率:12 dBm@40 GHz,带宽:48 GHz
    2016 The Netherlands 波导型探测器 带宽:67 GHz,响应度:0.7 A/W
    2017 Japan 调制器[92] 带宽:2.2 GHz,调制效率:0.09 V·cm,消光比:3.1 dB@32 Gbit/s
    2018 Belgium 外调制激光器[127] 波长:1567 nm,边模抑制比:40 dB,波导输出光功率:3 mW,带宽:20 GHz,静态消光比:15 dB
    Si-LiNbO3 2014 USA 环形调制器[128] 带宽:5 GHz, Q值:14000,谐振调谐效率:3.3 pm/V
    2016 USA 调制器[67] 带宽:>8 GHz,半波电压:2.5 V,消光比:13.8 dB
    2016 USA 调制器[96] 带宽:~40 GHz
    2018 USA 调制器[97] 带宽:100 GHz,半波电压:5 V,消光比:~30 dB
    2019 China 调制器[98] 带宽:>70 GHz,半波电压:<7.4 V,消光比:~40 dB,插损:2.5 dB
    2019 USA 电光可调谐光频梳[129] 调谐范围:10~100 MHz
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