空间目标ISAR图像三维基元表示方法

王粲雨 蒋李兵 任笑圆 王壮

王粲雨, 蒋李兵, 任笑圆, 等. 空间目标ISAR图像三维基元表示方法[J]. 雷达学报(中英文), 2024, 13(3): 682–695. doi: 10.12000/JR23241
引用本文: 王粲雨, 蒋李兵, 任笑圆, 等. 空间目标ISAR图像三维基元表示方法[J]. 雷达学报(中英文), 2024, 13(3): 682–695. doi: 10.12000/JR23241
WANG Canyu, JIANG Libing, REN Xiaoyuan, et al. Primitive-based 3D abstraction method for spacecraft ISAR images[J]. Journal of Radars, 2024, 13(3): 682–695. doi: 10.12000/JR23241
Citation: WANG Canyu, JIANG Libing, REN Xiaoyuan, et al. Primitive-based 3D abstraction method for spacecraft ISAR images[J]. Journal of Radars, 2024, 13(3): 682–695. doi: 10.12000/JR23241

空间目标ISAR图像三维基元表示方法

doi: 10.12000/JR23241
基金项目: 国家部委基金
详细信息
    作者简介:

    王粲雨,博士生,主要研究方向为雷达信号与数据处理、太空态势感知、视觉三维重建等

    蒋李兵,博士,副教授,主要研究方向为雷达信号与数据处理、SAR图像解译、电磁计算等

    任笑圆,博士,讲师,主要研究方向为计算机视觉、计算机图形学等

    王 壮,博士,教授,主要研究方向为雷达信息处理、空间目标监视、自动目标识别

    通讯作者:

    王壮 zhuang_wang@sina.com

  • 责任主编:许小剑 Corresponding Editor: XU Xiaojian
  • 中图分类号: TN975

Primitive-based 3D Abstraction Method for Spacecraft ISAR Images

Funds: The National Ministries Foundation
More Information
  • 摘要: 空间卫星目标的逆合成孔径雷达(ISAR)图像由离散的散射点构成,具有弱纹理、高动态、非连续的特性,造成传统算法对空间目标ISAR图像进行三维重建时,得到的点云结果稀疏,无法覆盖目标整体外形轮廓,进而导致难以精确提取目标结构、姿态参数。针对上述问题,并考虑到空间目标通常由特定模块化部件组成的特点,该文提出一种从空间目标ISAR图像中抽取参数化基元来表示其三维结构的方法。首先利用能量累积算法从ISAR图像中得到目标的稀疏点云,进而利用参数化基元对点云进行拟合,最后将基元投影至ISAR成像平面,并最大化与目标图像的相似度来优化基元参数,得到最优的目标三维基元表示。相比于传统点云三维重建,该方法能够获得对目标三维结构更完整的描述,且所得到的基元参数即代表目标的姿态及结构,可直接支撑后续的目标识别、分析研判等任务。仿真实验证明该方法能够根据ISAR序列图像,有效实现对空间目标的三维表示。

     

  • 图  1  4种典型重点空间目标

    Figure  1.  Four types of typical key spacecrafts

    图  2  ISAR图像语义分割网络结构

    Figure  2.  Structure of ISAR image semantic segmentation network

    图  3  参数化结构基元示意

    Figure  3.  Schematic diagram of parameterized structural primitives

    图  4  仿真条件设置

    Figure  4.  Simulation condition settings

    图  5  成像区间内仿真的5个不同时刻下的ISAR图像

    Figure  5.  ISAR images at five different moments simulated within the imaging interval

    图  6  ISAR图像分割结果

    Figure  6.  ISAR image segmentation results

    图  7  点云重建结果

    Figure  7.  Results of point cloud reconstruction

    图  8  不同方法获得的三维基元在成像平面上的投影与目标ISAR图像的对比

    Figure  8.  Comparison between the projection of primitives reconstructed by different algorithms on imaging planes and the target ISAR images

    图  9  重建结果与目标真值三维结构对比图

    Figure  9.  Comparison between the reconstruction results and the three-dimensional structure of the ground-truth

    表  1  参数取值范围和含义

    Table  1.   The parameters and their meanings

    参数 含义
    $ {D}_{\text{c}}\in \left(\text{0},\;\text{+}\infty \right) $ 舱体直径
    $ {H}_{\text{c}}\in \left(\text{0},\;\text{+}\infty \right) $ 舱体长度
    $ \alpha \in \left({-}\pi \text{/2},\;\pi \text{/2}\right) $ 目标俯仰角,即绕x轴的旋转角
    $ \beta \in \left({-}\pi ,\;\pi \right) $ 目标偏航角,即绕y轴的旋转角
    $ \gamma \in \left({-}\pi ,\;\pi \right) $ 目标滚转角,即绕z轴的旋转角(姿态旋转顺序为$\gamma - \alpha - \beta $)
    $ {T}_{x}\in \left({-}\infty ,\;\text{+}\infty \right) $ 沿x方向的相对平移
    $ {T}_{y}\in \left({-}\infty ,\;\text{+}\infty \right) $ 沿y方向的相对平移
    $ {T}_{z}\in \left({-}\infty ,\;\text{+}\infty \right) $ 沿z方向的相对平移
    $ {L}_{\text{b}}\in \left(\text{0},\;\text{+}\infty \right) $ 帆板长度
    $ {W}_{\text{b}}\in \left(\text{0},\;\text{+}\infty \right) $ 帆板宽度
    $ \theta \in \left({-}\pi \text{/2},\;\pi \text{/2}\right) $ 帆板与舱体之间的夹角
    $ {K}_{z}\in \left({-}{H}_{\text{c}}\text{/2},\;{H}_{\text{c}}\text{/2}\right) $ 帆板与主体的相对位置关系,即帆板沿舱体对称轴方向移动的距离
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  目标卫星轨道参数设置

    Table  2.   Target satellite orbit parameters settings

    参数 数值
    偏心率 1.721×10–4
    近地点幅角(°) 14.191
    轨道倾角(°) 98.7173
    升交点赤经(°) 292.785
    平均运动速率(°/s) 5.916×10–2
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  几何参数提取结果(m)

    Table  3.   Geometric parameters extraction results (m)

    参数 PCA初始值 仅点云拟合 点云拟合+投影拟合 模型真值
    主轴直径Dc 4.30 3.410 3.760 4.19(实验舱)
    主轴长度Hc 12.97 10.696 11.712 11.95
    帆板长度Lb 19.92 19.140 19.580 19.82
    帆板宽度Wb 4.43 4.520 3.780 3.64
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  姿态参数提取结果(°)

    Table  4.   Attitude parameters extraction results (°)

    参数PCA初始值仅点云拟合点云拟合+投影拟合模型真值
    目标俯仰角α90.0583.0991.0590
    目标偏航角β86.7488.3688.2290
    目标滚转角γ4.085.352.060
    帆板倾角θ18.7422.5121.4220
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  平移参数提取结果(m)

    Table  5.   Translation parameters extraction results (m)

    参数PCA初始值仅点云拟合点云拟合+投影拟合模型真值
    x方向位移Tx0.620.881.381.79
    y方向位移Ty–0.65–0.44–0.270
    z方向位移Tz0.07–0.020.050
    帆板位移Kz2.212.212.011.78
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  平均参数误差

    Table  6.   Average parameter errors

    参数 PCA初始值 仅点云拟合 点云拟合+投影拟合
    εg (m) 1.64 1.42 0.89
    εe (°) 6.07 5.59 2.92
    εt (m) 1.63 1.01 0.50
    IoU3D (ξt=3%lco) 0.62 2.21 0.92
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  三维结构交并比对比

    Table  7.   Comparison of IoU3D

    参数 本文方法 文献[16]方法 文献[18]方法
    ξt=1%lco (0.24 m) 0.29 0.28 0.07
    ξt=2%lco (0.48 m) 0.70 0.63 0.14
    ξt=3%lco (0.72 m) 0.92 0.77 0.21
    ξt=4%lco (0.96 m) 0.97 0.83 0.27
    ξt=5%lco (1.20 m) 0.99 0.88 0.33
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2023-12-20
  • 修回日期:  2024-03-13
  • 网络出版日期:  2024-04-26
  • 刊出日期:  2024-06-28

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