考虑综合性能最优的非短视快速天基雷达多目标跟踪资源调度算法

王增福 杨广宇 金术玲

王增福, 杨广宇, 金术玲. 考虑综合性能最优的非短视快速天基雷达多目标跟踪资源调度算法[J]. 雷达学报(中英文), 2024, 13(1): 253–269. doi: 10.12000/JR23162
引用本文: 王增福, 杨广宇, 金术玲. 考虑综合性能最优的非短视快速天基雷达多目标跟踪资源调度算法[J]. 雷达学报(中英文), 2024, 13(1): 253–269. doi: 10.12000/JR23162
WANG Zengfu, YANG Guangyu, and JIN Shuling. A non-myopic and fast resource scheduling algorithm for multi-target tracking of space-based radar considering optimal integrated performance[J]. Journal of Radars, 2024, 13(1): 253–269. doi: 10.12000/JR23162
Citation: WANG Zengfu, YANG Guangyu, and JIN Shuling. A non-myopic and fast resource scheduling algorithm for multi-target tracking of space-based radar considering optimal integrated performance[J]. Journal of Radars, 2024, 13(1): 253–269. doi: 10.12000/JR23162

考虑综合性能最优的非短视快速天基雷达多目标跟踪资源调度算法

doi: 10.12000/JR23162
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(U21B2008)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    王增福,博士,副教授,主要研究方向为信息融合、传感器管理、路径规划等

    杨广宇,硕士生,主要研究方向为天基雷达资源调度

    金术玲,博士,高级工程师,主要研究方向为雷达总体设计等

    通讯作者:

    王增福 wangzengfu@nwpu.edu.cn

  • 责任主编:严俊坤 Corresponding Editor: YAN Junkun
  • 中图分类号: TN95

A Non-myopic and Fast Resource Scheduling Algorithm for Multi-target Tracking of Space-based Radar Considering Optimal Integrated Performance

Funds: The National Natural Science Foundation of China (U21B2008)
More Information
  • 摘要: 合理有效的资源调度是天基雷达效能得以充分发挥的关键。针对天基雷达多目标跟踪资源调度问题,建立了综合考虑目标威胁度、跟踪精度与低截获概率(LPI)的代价函数;考虑目标的不确定、天基平台约束以及长远期期望代价,建立了多约束下的基于部分可观测的马尔可夫决策过程(POMDP)的资源调度模型;采用拉格朗日松弛法将多约束下的多目标跟踪资源调度问题转换分解为多个无约束的子问题;针对连续状态空间、连续动作空间及连续观测空间引起的维数灾难问题,采用基于蒙特卡罗树搜索(MCTS)的在线POMDP算法—POMCPOW算法进行求解,最终提出了一种综合多指标性能的非短视快速天基雷达多目标跟踪资源调度算法。仿真表明,与已有调度算法相比,所提算法资源分配更合理,系统性能更优。

     

  • 图  1  基于LR-POMCPOW的天基雷达多目标跟踪资源调度方法框图

    Figure  1.  Schematic diagram of the proposed LR-POMCPOW for resource scheduling of space-based radar multi-target tracking

    图  2  蒙特卡罗树搜索算法的过程

    Figure  2.  The process of the MCTS algorithm

    图  3  威胁度对雷达资源分配影响分析STK仿真图示

    Figure  3.  STK-based demonstration for impact of distinct target threat levels on radar resource allocation

    图  4  目标威胁度结果

    Figure  4.  Target threat level results

    图  5  各目标的预算比($\tau/T $)分配结果

    Figure  5.  Budget ratio ($\tau/T $) allocation results for each target

    图  6  相对距离对雷达资源分配影响分析STK仿真图示

    Figure  6.  STK-based demonstration for impact of distinct relative distances on radar resource allocation

    图  7  目标径向距离

    Figure  7.  The slant range of targets

    图  8  相对距离影响下预算比($\tau / T $)分配结果

    Figure  8.  Budget ratio ($\tau / T $) allocation results influenced by relative distance

    图  9  多目标跟踪的STK仿真图示

    Figure  9.  STK-based demonstration for multi-target tracking

    图  10  目标跟踪轨迹

    Figure  10.  Target tracking trajectory

    图  11  多目标跟踪下各目标的预算比($ \tau / T $)分配结果

    Figure  11.  Budget ratio ($ \tau / T$) allocation results of each target under multi-target tracking

    图  12  各目标分配平均辐射功率

    Figure  12.  The average radiation power allocated to each target

    图  13  目标1跟踪位置RMSE

    Figure  13.  RMSE on position of target1

    图  14  目标1跟踪速度RMSE

    Figure  14.  RMSE on speed of target1

    图  15  总平均辐射功率对比

    Figure  15.  Comparison of total average radiation power

    图  16  总预算比对比

    Figure  16.  Comparison of the total budget ratio ($ \tau / T $)

    图  17  各算法期望累积多目标总折扣代价对比

    Figure  17.  Comparison of the expected cumulative multi-target discount cost

    1  POMCPOW算法

    1.   POMCPOW algorithm

     Input:信念状态b1,搜索深度d,拉格朗日算子向量${\boldsymbol{\varLambda}}^e $,模拟
     次数$\varGamma $,动作空间${\mathcal{A}} $
     Output:最优策略${\boldsymbol{\pi}}^e $
     1: for l=1:${\mathcal{L}} $ do
     2:  for n=1:$\varGamma $ do
     3:   x$\leftarrow $从bl中采样
     4:   SIMULATE(x,$\hbar $,${\boldsymbol{\lambda}}_l^e $,d)
     5:  end for
     6:  ${\boldsymbol{a}}_l^e \leftarrow \mathop {\arg \min }\limits_{{\boldsymbol{a}}_l} {\mathcal{Q}}({\boldsymbol{b}}_l,{\boldsymbol{a}}_l)$
     7:  预测u步得到下一调度时刻的信念状态bl+1
     8: end for
     9: return ${\boldsymbol{\pi}}^e=[{\boldsymbol{a}}_1^e\;{\boldsymbol{a}}_2^e\;\cdots\;{\boldsymbol{a}}_{\mathcal{L}}^e] $
     10: procedure SIMULATE (${\boldsymbol{x}},\hbar,{\boldsymbol{\lambda}},d $)
     11: if d=0 then
     12: return 0
     13: end if
     14: if $|{\mathcal{C}}(\hbar)| \le \delta_{\boldsymbol{a}} N(\hbar)^{\alpha_{\boldsymbol{a}}}$ then
     15: ${\boldsymbol{a}} \leftarrow $ NEXTACTION$(\hbar) $
     16: ${\mathcal{C}}(\hbar) \leftarrow {\mathcal{C}}(\hbar) \cup \{{\boldsymbol{a}}\}$
     17: end if
     18: ${\boldsymbol{a}}\leftarrow \mathop {\arg \min }\limits_{{\boldsymbol{a}}\in{\mathcal{C}}(\hbar) } {\mathcal{Q}}(\hbar {\boldsymbol{a}}) -\mu \sqrt{\dfrac{\log N(\hbar )}{N(\hbar {\boldsymbol{a}})}}$
     19: ${\boldsymbol{x}}',{\boldsymbol{y}},\;C \leftarrow {\mathcal{G}}({\boldsymbol{x}},{\boldsymbol{a}},{\boldsymbol{\lambda}})$
     20: if $|{\mathcal{C}}(\hbar {\boldsymbol{a}})|\le\delta_{\boldsymbol{y}} N(\hbar {\boldsymbol{a}})^{\alpha_{\boldsymbol{y}}} $ then
     21: M$(\hbar {\boldsymbol{ay}}) \leftarrow M( \hbar {\boldsymbol{ay}})$+1
     22: else
     23: 选择${\boldsymbol{y}}\in {\mathcal{C}}(\hbar {\boldsymbol{a}}){\mathrm{w.p}}.\dfrac{M(\hbar {\boldsymbol{ay}})}{\displaystyle\sum\nolimits_{\boldsymbol{y}} M(\hbar {\boldsymbol{ay}})}$
     24: end if
     25: 增加${\boldsymbol{x}}' $至$ X(\hbar {\boldsymbol{ay}}) $
     26: 增加${\mathrm{Pr}}({\boldsymbol{y}}|{\boldsymbol{x}}',{\boldsymbol{a}}) $至$W(\hbar {\boldsymbol{ay}}) $
     27: if ${\boldsymbol{y}}\notin {\mathcal{C}}(\hbar {\boldsymbol{a}}) $ then
     28: ${\mathcal{C}}(\hbar {\boldsymbol{a}}) \leftarrow {\mathcal{C}}(\hbar {\boldsymbol{a}}) \cup \{{\boldsymbol{y}}\}$
     29: $C_{\mathrm{total}} \leftarrow {\mathrm{ROLLOUT}} ({\boldsymbol{x}},\hbar,{\boldsymbol{\lambda}},d)$
     30: else
     31: 选择${\boldsymbol{x}}'\in X(\hbar {\boldsymbol{ay}}) {\mathrm{w.p.}}\dfrac{W(\hbar {\boldsymbol{ay}}[i])}{\displaystyle\sum\nolimits_{j=1}^mW(\hbar {\boldsymbol{ay}})[j]}$
     32: $C \leftarrow \varLambda ({\boldsymbol{x}},{\boldsymbol{a}}) $
     33: $C_{\mathrm{total}} \leftarrow C +\gamma{\mathrm{SIMULATE}}({\boldsymbol{x}},\hbar {\boldsymbol{ay}}, {\boldsymbol{\lambda}}, d-1)$
     34: end if
     35: $N (\hbar) \leftarrow N (\hbar)+1 $
     36: $N (\hbar {\boldsymbol{a}}) \leftarrow N (\hbar {\boldsymbol{a}})+1 $
     37: ${\mathcal{Q}} (\hbar {\boldsymbol{a}}) \leftarrow {\mathcal{Q}} (\hbar {\boldsymbol{a}})+ \dfrac{C_{\mathrm{total}}-{\mathcal{Q}}(\hbar {\boldsymbol{a}})}{N(\hbar {\boldsymbol{a}}) }$
     38: end procedure
    下载: 导出CSV

    2  Rollout算法

    2.   Rollout algorithm

     1: procedure ROLLOUT$({\boldsymbol{x}},\hbar,{\boldsymbol{\lambda}},d) $
     2:  if d=0 then
     3:   return 0
     4:  end if
     5:  ${\boldsymbol{a}} \leftarrow{\boldsymbol{\pi}}_{\mathrm{rollout}} (\hbar,\cdot)$
     6:  ${\boldsymbol{x}}',{\boldsymbol{y}},C \leftarrow {\mathcal{G}}({\boldsymbol{x}},{\boldsymbol{a}},{\boldsymbol{\lambda}})$
     7:  return $C+\gamma {\mathrm{ROLLOUT}}({\boldsymbol{x}}', \hbar {\boldsymbol{ay}},{\boldsymbol{\lambda}}, d-1) $
     8: end procedure
    下载: 导出CSV

    3  基于LR-POMCPOW的天基雷达多目标跟踪资源调度算法

    3.   LR-POMCPOW-based resource scheduling algorithm for multi-target tracking of space-based radar

     Input: 动作空间${\mathcal{A}} $,初始信念状态B1,最大迭代次数em,初始迭代步长$\gamma_{\mathrm{LR}} $,模拟次数$\varGamma $,搜索深度d
     Output:最优策略${\boldsymbol{\pi}}^* $,最优累积多目标总代价值V*(B1)
     1:调度次数$\kappa=1 $
     2:while $\kappa\le K $ do
     3: 迭代次数e=0,拉格朗日乘子向量初始值设定为${\boldsymbol{\varLambda}}^0=[{\boldsymbol{\lambda}}_1^0\; {\boldsymbol{\lambda}}_2^0\;\cdots\;{\boldsymbol{\lambda}}_{\mathcal{L}}^0] ^{\mathrm{T}}$
     4: while eem do
     5:  for i=1:${\mathcal{I}} $ do
     6:   给定信念状态${\boldsymbol{b}}_{i,\kappa} $,搜索深度d,拉格朗日算子向量${\boldsymbol{\varLambda}}^e $,模拟次数$ \varGamma$,动作空间${\mathcal{A}} $,转至算法1进行求解,得到目标i的最优策略
          ${\boldsymbol{\pi}}^e_i=[{\boldsymbol{a}}_{i,1}^e\;{\boldsymbol{a}}_{i,2}^e\;\cdots\; {\boldsymbol{a}}_{i,{\mathcal{L}}}^e] $
     7:  end for
     8:  分别计算次梯度$\varsigma_{1,l}=\displaystyle\sum\nolimits_{i=1}^{\mathcal{I}} p_{{\mathrm{av}},i,l}-E/ \mathfrak{U}$, $\varsigma_{2,l} =\displaystyle\sum\nolimits_{i=1}^{\mathcal{I}} \tau_{i,l}/T-\eta ,\forall l,1\le l \le {\mathcal{L}}$
     9:  对于$\forall l,1\le l \le {\mathcal{L}} $,$\varsigma_{1,l} $, $\varsigma_{2,l} $等于0或小于给定误差阈值$\varepsilon $,则迭代结束,并保存对应的策略$\bar{\boldsymbol{\pi}} =[{\boldsymbol{\pi}}_1^*\;{\boldsymbol{\pi}}_2^*\;\cdots\; {\boldsymbol{\pi}}_{\mathcal{I}} ^*]^{\mathrm{T}}$,转至步骤13
     10:  更新拉格朗日乘子向量${\boldsymbol{\varLambda}} ^e$,令$\lambda_{1,l}^{e+1}=\max\{ 0, \lambda_{1,l}^e + \gamma_{\mathrm{LR}}\cdot \varsigma_{1,l} \} $, $ \lambda_{2,l}^{e+1}= \max\{ 0, \lambda_{2,l}^e + \gamma_{\mathrm{LR}}\cdot \varsigma_{2,l} \}, \forall l, 1\le l \le {\mathcal{L}}$
     11:  令e=e+1,返回至步骤4
     12: end while
     13: 选取本次调度各目标策略的首个动作,构成动作向量$\bar {\boldsymbol{\pi}}_\kappa=[{\boldsymbol{a}}_{1,1}^*\;{\boldsymbol{a}}_{2,1}^*\;\cdots\;{\boldsymbol{a}}_{{\mathcal{I}},1}^*] ^{\mathrm{T}}$
     14: 当$\kappa $大于K时结束迭代,利用PEKF-VB算法执行完剩余更新步,并转至步骤20
     15: for i=1:${\mathcal{I}} $ do
     16:  利用PEKF-VB算法执行u步更新,得到信念状态${\boldsymbol{b}}_{i,\kappa+1} $
     17: end for
     18: 令$\kappa=\kappa+1 $
     19:end while
     20:根据最优策略$\bar{\boldsymbol{\pi}}^*=[\bar {\boldsymbol{\pi}}_1\;\bar {\boldsymbol{\pi}}_2\;\cdots\; \bar {\boldsymbol{\pi}}_K] $计算式(17)的最优累积多目标总代价值V*(B1)
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  1  仿真基本参数设置

    Table  1.   Basic parameter settings of simulation

    参数 数值
    搜索深度d 6
    模拟次数$\varGamma $ 600
    状态粒子数Nparticles 600
    折扣因子$\gamma $ 1
    脉冲宽度$\nu $ 1 μs
    l次调度时初始拉格朗日算子${{\lambda}}_l^0 $ [50, 50]
    LR最大迭代次数em 50
    LR初始迭代步长$\gamma_{\mathrm{LR}} $ 20
    LR误差阈值$\varepsilon $ 0.01
    最大时间预算比$\eta $ 0.5
    轨道6根数1 [7400 km, 0, 0.61 rad, 0 rad,
    0 rad, 0.84 rad]
    格林尼治恒星时角(GHA) 4.98 rad
    窗口起始时间tstart (UTCG) 4 May 2023 04:14:43.000
    窗口结束时间tend (UTCG) 4 May 2023 04:19:42.000
    1轨道高度指圆形轨道下的半长袖,即地心与天基雷达卫星之间的距离。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  场景1初始时刻目标相关参数

    Table  2.   Parameters related to target initialization of scenario 1

    区域内目标 初始位置(km) 初始速度(km/s) $\sigma \;({\mathrm{m}}^2) $ r (km) $\tau\;({\mathrm{s}}) $ pav (W)
    参考目标 11 1250.00 0.20 1×104
    目标1 [–3563.04,4533.712,2741.618] [0.008,0.109,–0.168] 14 1570.05 0.20 1×104
    目标2 [–3728.76,4427.435,2695.038] [–0.123,–0.126,0.037] 15 1572.54 0.20 1×104
    我方飞机 [–3560.39,4547.62,2722.091] [–0.164,–0.110,–0.031]
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  场景2初始时刻目标相关参数

    Table  3.   Parameters related to target initialization of scenario 2

    区域内目标 初始位置(km) 初始速度(km/s) $\sigma \;({\mathrm{m}}^2) $ r (km) $\tau\;({\mathrm{s}}) $ pav (W)
    参考目标 11 900.00 0.20 1×104
    目标1 [–3579.26,4512.89,2754.72] [0.139,0.115,–0.008] 10 750.44 0.25 1×104
    目标2 [–3596.33,4574.503,2628.813] [–0.055,0.051,–0.164] 15 1413.93 0.25 1×104
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  场景3初始时刻目标相关参数

    Table  4.   Parameters related to target initialization of scenario 3

    区域内目标 初始位置(km) 初始速度(km/s) $\sigma\;({\mathrm{m}}^2) $ r (km) $\tau\;({\mathrm{s}}) $ pav (W)
    参考目标 11 1300.00 0.20 1.00×104
    目标1 [–2924.49,5193.69,2294.53] [0.201,0.111,0.008] 10 1325.83 0.15 1.42×104
    目标2 [–3192.74,5100.13,2155.14] [0.173,0.098,0.025] 15 1559.51 0.12 1.60×104
    目标3 [–2947.68,5222.76,2197.083] [0.137,0.102,–0.057] 15 1353.37 0.20 1.10×104
    目标4 [–3109.56,5044.01,2392.48] [0.028,0.081,–0.135] 12 1480.35 0.23 1.50×104
    我方舰船 [–2992.27,5162.81,2244.70] [0.010,0.009,–0.007]
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  各算法超参数

    Table  5.   Algorithm hyperparameters

    比较的算法 $\mu $ $\delta_{\boldsymbol{a}} $ $\alpha_{\boldsymbol{a}} $ $\delta_{\boldsymbol{y}} $ $\alpha_{\boldsymbol{y}} $ Mr
    POMCPOW 100 35 1/100 8 1/120
    POMCPDPW 30 3 1/30 5 1/55
    POMCP 70
    Rollout 30
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2023-09-07
  • 修回日期:  2023-11-18
  • 网络出版日期:  2023-12-20
  • 刊出日期:  2024-02-28

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