机载多通道广角凝视SAR地面动目标指示技术研究

安道祥 葛蓓蓓 王武 陈乐平 冯东 周智敏

安道祥, 葛蓓蓓, 王武, 等. 机载多通道广角凝视SAR地面动目标指示技术研究[J]. 雷达学报, 2023, 12(6): 1179–1201. doi: 10.12000/JR23147
引用本文: 安道祥, 葛蓓蓓, 王武, 等. 机载多通道广角凝视SAR地面动目标指示技术研究[J]. 雷达学报, 2023, 12(6): 1179–1201. doi: 10.12000/JR23147
AN Daoxiang, GE Beibei, WANG Wu, et al. Research on the technology of airborne multi-channel wide angle staring SAR ground moving target indication[J]. Journal of Radars, 2023, 12(6): 1179–1201. doi: 10.12000/JR23147
Citation: AN Daoxiang, GE Beibei, WANG Wu, et al. Research on the technology of airborne multi-channel wide angle staring SAR ground moving target indication[J]. Journal of Radars, 2023, 12(6): 1179–1201. doi: 10.12000/JR23147

机载多通道广角凝视SAR地面动目标指示技术研究

doi: 10.12000/JR23147
基金项目: 湖南省自然科学杰出青年基金(2022JJ10062),国家自然科学基金(62271492, 62101562, 62101566)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    安道祥,博士,副教授,主要研究方向为机载单/双站低频UWB SAR成像、机载WasSAR成像与动目标检测跟踪、SAR目标数据构建与智能解译、机载重轨低频InSAR技术等

    葛蓓蓓,博士,助理研究员,主要研究方向为机载雷达、机载WasSAR-GMTI技术

    王 武,博士,工程师,主要研究方向为合成孔径雷达成像与动目标指示技术

    陈乐平,博士,副教授,主要研究方向为高分辨率CSAR成像技术

    冯 东,博士,讲师,主要研究方向为高分辨SAR三维成像技术

    周智敏,博士,教授,主要研究方向为超宽带雷达技术

    通讯作者:

    安道祥 daoxiangan@nudt.edu.cn

  • 责任主编:廖桂生 Corresponding Editor: LIAO Guisheng
  • 中图分类号: TN959.4

Research on the Technology of Airborne Multi-channel Wide Angle Staring SAR Ground Moving Target Indication

Funds: The Natural Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars of Hunan Province (2022JJ10062), The National Natural Science Foundation of China (62271492, 62101562, 62101566)
More Information
  • 摘要: 机载广角凝视合成孔径雷达(WasSAR)是一种可对观测区域实施多角度长时间凝视成像探测的新兴SAR成像技术。将机载WasSAR成像与地面运动目标指示(GMTI)技术相结合,则可对重点区域内出现的地面运动目标实施持续成像跟踪监视,从而获取准确的动态感知信息。该文首先建立了机载多通道WasSAR动目标回波模型,分析了WasSAR动目标特性;然后,通过采用偏移相位校正和改进二维自适应校正方法,消除了载机姿态误差与通道非均衡的影响;在此基础上,提出了机载多通道WasSAR动目标检测跟踪算法,实现了复杂路况上行驶动目标的准确检测与跟踪;最后,提出了机载多通道WasSAR动目标行驶轨迹重构算法,实现了起伏路面下的动目标行驶轨迹精确重构。此外,该文中给出了作者团队利用自主研制机载多通道WasSAR-GMTI系统开展的外场飞行试验和实测数据处理结果,验证了地面运动目标持续跟踪监视的有效性和实用性,为后续开展更加深入的研究提供基础。

     

  • 图  1  机载多通道WasSAR成像几何

    Figure  1.  The imaging geometry of multi-channel airborne WasSAR

    图  2  机载多通道WasSAR天线配置方式

    Figure  2.  The antenna setting of multi-channel airborne WasSAR

    图  3  两种不同运动的仿真实验结果

    Figure  3.  The simulation results of two typical motions

    图  4  静止目标成像

    Figure  4.  The results of stationary target

    图  5  ${v_x} = 0.6\;{{\text{m}} \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{\text{m}} {\text{s}}}} \right. } {\text{s}}}$ 时的运动目标成像

    Figure  5.  The imaging results of moving target ( ${v_x} = 0.6\;{{\text{m}} \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{\text{m}} {\text{s}}}} \right. } {\text{s}}}$ )

    图  6  ${v_y} = 0.2\;{{\text{m}} \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{\text{m}} {\text{s}}}} \right. } {\text{s}}}$ 时的运动目标成像

    Figure  6.  The imaging results of moving target ( ${v_y} = 0.2\;{{\text{m}} \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{\text{m}} {\text{s}}}} \right. } {\text{s}}}$ )

    图  7  ${v_y} = 2\;{{\text{m}} \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{\text{m}} {\text{s}}}} \right. } {\text{s}}}$ 时的运动目标成像

    Figure  7.  The imaging results of moving target ( ${v_y} = 2\;{{\text{m}} \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{\text{m}} {\text{s}}}} \right. } {\text{s}}}$ )

    图  8  平台姿态误差模型

    Figure  8.  The model of platform error

    图  9  偏移相位校正流程图

    Figure  9.  The flowchart of group phase shift calibration

    图  10  偏移相位校正结果对比

    Figure  10.  The comparison results of group phase shift calibration

    图  11  双通道WasSAR-GMTI检测结果

    Figure  11.  The detection results of dual-channel WasSAR-GMTI

    图  12  MA2DC处理流程图

    Figure  12.  The flowchart of MA2DC

    图  13  通道误差校正后的RD域干涉相位结果

    Figure  13.  The results of interferometric phase after channel error calibration

    图  14  通道误差校正后的图像域DPCA检测结果与ATI检测结果

    Figure  14.  The detection results of DPCA and ATI after channel error calibration

    图  15  机载多通道WasSAR动目标检测与跟踪处理流程图

    Figure  15.  The processing flow of moving target detection and tracking in WasSAR

    图  16  机载WasSAR子孔径回波、CSI及RELAX检测结果

    Figure  16.  The sub-aperture echo of airborne WasSAR, CSI and RELAX detection results

    图  17  不同跟踪算法下的RD域多目标轨迹对比图

    Figure  17.  The comparison results of multiple target trajectory in RD domain by different tracking algorithms

    图  18  机载WasSAR成像几何示意图

    Figure  18.  The imaging geometry of airborne WasSAR

    图  19  TSPE处理流程图

    Figure  19.  The flowchart of TSPE method

    图  20  实验合作车辆

    Figure  20.  The cooperative vehicles for the experiment

    图  21  合作车辆目标的多子孔径轨迹重构结果

    Figure  21.  The multi channel trajectory reconstruction of cooperative targets

    图  22  高度与坡度对目标定位的影响

    Figure  22.  The influence of altitude and slope on positioning

    图  23  起伏路面下的运动目标轨迹重构处理流程图

    Figure  23.  The processing flow of 3-D moving target trajectory reconstruction

    图  24  起伏路面下运动目标的原始观测几何与等效观测几何

    Figure  24.  The real geometry and equivalence of 3-D moving target

    图  25  观测场景图像

    Figure  25.  The images of observation scene

    图  26  观测场景中的拱桥与合作车辆

    Figure  26.  The pictures of arch bridge and cooperative pickup truck of observation scene

    图  27  起伏路面动目标三维速度估计结果与三维位置重构结果

    Figure  27.  The three-dimensional velocity estimation and trajectory reconstruction of moving target in the three-dimensional field

    表  1  机载WasSAR系统仿真参数

    Table  1.   The simulated parameters of airborne WasSAR system

    参数 数值 参数 数值
    飞行半径 ${r_{\text{a}}}$ 2000 m 工作频段 Ku波段
    飞行高度H 2000 m 距离分辨率 ${\rho _{\text{r}}}$ 0.167 m
    飞机速度 ${v_{\text{a}}}$ 180 km/h 脉冲重复频率 ${\text{PRF}}$ 3125 Hz
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2023-08-29
  • 修回日期:  2023-11-23
  • 网络出版日期:  2023-12-21
  • 刊出日期:  2023-12-28

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