基于机载多通道雷达迭代超分辨估计的前视成像

任凌云 吴迪 朱岱寅 孙伟杰

任凌云, 吴迪, 朱岱寅, 等. 基于机载多通道雷达迭代超分辨估计的前视成像[J]. 雷达学报, 2023, 12(6): 1166–1178. doi: 10.12000/JR23085
引用本文: 任凌云, 吴迪, 朱岱寅, 等. 基于机载多通道雷达迭代超分辨估计的前视成像[J]. 雷达学报, 2023, 12(6): 1166–1178. doi: 10.12000/JR23085
REN Lingyun, WU Di, ZHU Daiyin, et al. Forward-looking imaging via iterative super-resolution estimation in airborne multi-channel radar[J]. Journal of Radars, 2023, 12(6): 1166–1178. doi: 10.12000/JR23085
Citation: REN Lingyun, WU Di, ZHU Daiyin, et al. Forward-looking imaging via iterative super-resolution estimation in airborne multi-channel radar[J]. Journal of Radars, 2023, 12(6): 1166–1178. doi: 10.12000/JR23085

基于机载多通道雷达迭代超分辨估计的前视成像

doi: 10.12000/JR23085
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(62271252)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    任凌云,博士生,主要研究方向为雷达前视成像、MIMO雷达信号处理

    吴 迪,教授,主要研究方向为雷达前视成像、雷达信号处理、空时自适应处理技术等

    朱岱寅,教授,主要研究方向为合成孔径雷达/逆合成孔径雷达(SAR/ISAR)成像以及自聚焦算法、MIMO雷达信号处理、干涉SAR成像、SAR地面动目标指示以及机载雷达空中动目标指示技术等

    孙伟杰,硕士生,主要研究方向为雷达前视成像、阵列信号处理

    通讯作者:

    吴迪 wudi82@nuaa.edu.cn

    朱岱寅 zhudy@nuaa.edu.cn

  • 责任主编:李亚超 Corresponding Editor: LI Yachao
  • 中图分类号: TN957.5; TN959.4

Forward-looking Imaging via Iterative Super-resolution Estimation in Airborne Multi-channel Radar

Funds: The National Natural Science Foundation of China (62271252)
More Information
  • 摘要: 波达角估计算法用于机载多通道雷达前视成像时可以突破瑞利极限,实现同一波束主瓣宽度内的多目标分辨,改善成像的方位向分辨率,然而天线波束覆盖有限且其快速扫描使得可用于协方差矩阵估计的数据样本缺乏,导致对目标位置和幅度估计出现误差。该文提出了一种基于单快拍迭代超分辨处理的多通道雷达前视成像算法,通过对单个空域快拍的迭代谱估计可获得目标的准确位置和幅度信息,再通过多个脉冲的非相干累积得到前视方位高分辨成像。仿真和实测数据处理结果表明,所提算法具有分辨多目标的能力,相较于传统前视成像算法显著提高了前视图像的方位分辨率,同时保证了点目标的精确重构和面目标的轮廓重构。

     

  • 图  1  机载多通道雷达前视成像三维几何结构图

    Figure  1.  3D geometry for airborne multi-channel radar forward-looking imaging

    图  2  收发天线示意图

    Figure  2.  Schematic diagram of transmitting and receiving antennas

    图  3  迭代超分辨多通道雷达前视成像处理流程图

    Figure  3.  Flow chart of iterative super-resolution forward-looking imaging processing of multi-channel radar

    图  4  点目标前视成像结果

    Figure  4.  Forward-looking imaging results for point targets

    图  5  点扩散函数仿真

    Figure  5.  Simulation of Point Spread Function (PSF)

    图  6  第1组场景仿真成像结果对比

    Figure  6.  Forward-looking imaging results for the first scenario

    图  7  第2组场景仿真成像结果对比

    Figure  7.  Forward-looking imaging results for the second scenario

    图  8  区域1成像结果放大图

    Figure  8.  Enlarged image of zone 1

    图  9  区域2成像结果放大图

    Figure  9.  Enlarged image of zone 2

    图  10  实测数据成像结果

    Figure  10.  Forward-looking imaging results for the measured data

    图  11  实测数据成像结果细节图

    Figure  11.  Enlarged imaging results for the measured data

    图  12  海面区域实测数据成像结果

    Figure  12.  Forward-looking imaging results for the measured data of sea surface

    1  迭代超分辨算法流程

    1.   Flow chart of iterative super-resolution algorithm

     根据当前波束中心 $ \bar \theta $,由式(12)计算得空域不混叠范围;在此范
     围上构建空域导引矢量矩阵A
     初始化:
      ${\hat {\boldsymbol{x}}_1} = {{\boldsymbol{A}}^{\text{H} } }{\boldsymbol{s}}$,基于此计算信号的空间功率分布矩阵 ${{\boldsymbol{P}}_1}$
     重复以下操作:
      ${{\boldsymbol{w}}_{t + 1} } = {\left( {{\boldsymbol{A}}{{\boldsymbol{P}}_t}{{\boldsymbol{A}}^{\text{H} } } + {{\boldsymbol{R}}_{\rm{N}}} } \right)^{ - 1} }{\boldsymbol{A}}{{\boldsymbol{P}}_t}$
      ${\hat {\boldsymbol{x} }_{t + 1} } = {\boldsymbol{w} }_{t + 1} ^{\text{H} }{\boldsymbol{s} }$
      ${\hat {\boldsymbol{P}}_{t + 1} } = [{\hat {\boldsymbol{x}}_t}\hat {\boldsymbol{x}}_t^{\text{H} }] \odot {{\boldsymbol{I}}_{K \times K} }$
     直到收敛
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  1  点目标仿真实验系统参数

    Table  1.   Point target simulation parameters

    参数名称 参数值
    雷达波长(m) 0.03
    系统带宽(MHz) 20
    采样频率(MHz) 30
    脉冲重复频率(Hz) 1000
    通道数 8
    通道间隔(m) 0.09
    波束方位向主瓣宽度(°) 2.11
    机载平台运动速度(m/s) 100
    波束扫描速度(°/s) 100
    前视扫描范围(°) –10~10
    目标点距离(m) 1000, 1250, 1250, 1250, 1500
    目标点方位角(°) 0, –3, –2, 3, 0
    目标点SNR (dB)
    20, 25, 25, 20, 20
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  场景仿真实验系统参数

    Table  2.   Parameters of simulation for simulated scenario

    参数名称 参数值
    (场景1)
    参数值
    (场景2)
    雷达波长(m) 0.03 0.03
    系统带宽(MHz) 40 40
    采样频率(MHz) 50 50
    脉冲重复频率(Hz) 1000 1000
    通道数 8 8
    通道间隔(m) 0.045 0.120
    波束方位向主瓣宽度(°) 4.23 1.59
    波束扫描范围(°) –20~20 –8~8
    机载平台运动速度(m/s) 100 80
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  实测数据系统参数

    Table  3.   Parameters of measured data

    参数名称 第1组实测数据 第2组实测数据
    雷达波段 X Ku
    脉冲重复频率(Hz) 417 3125
    通道数 4 4
    通道间隔(m) 0.150 0.037
    波束主瓣宽度(°) 2.42 6.31
    波束扫描范围(°) –14~14 –20~20
    扫描速度(°/s) 80 70
    机载平台速度(m/s) 145 68
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  地面实测数据成像结果图像熵和对比度对比

    Table  4.   Entropy and contrast of the measured data results

    成像方法 图像熵 对比度
    实波束成像 3.8625 4.42
    单脉冲成像结果 1.6530 8.12
    迭代超分辨成像 1.2543 9.59
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2023-05-10
  • 修回日期:  2023-07-10
  • 网络出版日期:  2023-07-27
  • 刊出日期:  2023-12-28

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