复杂动态海面与目标电磁散射及回波仿真研究现状与展望

郭立新 魏仪文

郭立新, 魏仪文. 复杂动态海面与目标电磁散射及回波仿真研究现状与展望[J]. 雷达学报, 待出版. doi: 10.12000/JR22202
引用本文: 郭立新, 魏仪文. 复杂动态海面与目标电磁散射及回波仿真研究现状与展望[J]. 雷达学报, 待出版. doi: 10.12000/JR22202
GUO Lixin and WEI Yiwen. Status and prospects of electromagnetic scattering echoes simulation from complex dynamic sea surfaces and targets[J]. Journal of Radars, in press. doi: 10.12000/JR22202
Citation: GUO Lixin and WEI Yiwen. Status and prospects of electromagnetic scattering echoes simulation from complex dynamic sea surfaces and targets[J]. Journal of Radars, in press. doi: 10.12000/JR22202

复杂动态海面与目标电磁散射及回波仿真研究现状与展望

doi: 10.12000/JR22202
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(62231021,U21A20457,61871457)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    郭立新(1968-),男,河北蔚县人,博士,教授。1993年硕士毕业于西安电子科技大学无线电物理专业并留校任教工作至今。1999年在中国科学院国家授时中心获得博士学位,现担任西安电子科技大学物理学院院长。长期从事雷达、通信环境电波传播与散射和目标光电特性理论及应用研究。主持国家级/省部级项目50余项。出版专著8部,在本领域主流刊物发表论文460余篇。获国家科技进步三等奖1项,省部级科技进步一等奖1项,二等奖4项;获国家级教学成果二等奖1项,陕西省教学成果特等奖1项、一等奖2项、二等奖4项。入选国家级人才,国家杰出青年科学基金获得者(2012),享受国务院政府特殊津贴,“复杂地海环境电波传播与散射”科技部重点领域创新团队负责人,复杂环境光电信息感知科学与技术国家“111”创新引智基地主任,陕西省“三秦学者”创新团队负责人。获得教育部首届“青年教师奖”、第六届“中国青年科技创新优秀奖”。兼任中国电子学会会士,陕西省物理学会副理事长,中国电子学会电波传播分会副主任委员

    魏仪文(1988-),女,陕西咸阳人,博士,副教授。2016年在西安电子科技大学获得力学博士学位,现任西安电子科技大学物理学院副教授。从事复杂超电大地海环境散射特性研究,回波仿真及SAR成像研究

    通讯作者:

    郭立新 lxguo@xidian.edu.cn

    魏仪文 ywwei@xidian.edu.cn

  • 责任主编:许小剑 Corresponding Editor: XU Xiaojian
  • 中图分类号: O45,

Status and Prospects of Electromagnetic Scattering Echoes Simulation from Complex Dynamic Sea Surfaces and Targets

Funds: The National Natural Science Foundation of China (62231021,U21A20457,61871457, 61621005)
More Information
  • 摘要: 海洋表面是一种高度不规则和时空不重复的复杂动态体系。海杂波是雷达电磁信号照射到海面产生的大量散射体回波的叠加,受风力、洋流、海浪等的影响呈现非均匀性和非平稳性。海杂波信号对海上目标的探测具有一定的干扰作用,尤其是高海情条件下,海浪起伏更加剧烈,目标信号极易淹没在强海杂波信号中,严重限制着雷达对海上目标的检测能力。海杂波及目标电磁散射特性研究是提升复杂海洋环境下目标检测能力的基础,以电磁波与实际复杂动态海面及目标电磁散射机理为基础,形成实际海洋环境下目标回波数据,对海杂波及目标雷达回波特征分析,实测数据集的补充,均存在重大意义。为了让更多相关研究者获得基于物理机理的复杂海环境与目标回波仿真方法近些年的发展和未来趋势,该文总结了回波仿真的六类方法,并针对海面与目标仿真场景特点,分析了六类方法的优劣和适应性,给出了部分仿真结果;还介绍了一些基于实测的回波数据集,可方便学者对回波特性进行分析;最后对复杂海面与目标回波仿真方法和特性研究的发展趋势进行了展望。

     

  • 图  1  MPI并行技术与FMM技术所得仿真结果及并行加速比

    Figure  1.  Simulation results and parallel acceleration ratios obtained by MPI parallel technique and FMM technique

    图  2  海面与其上方圆柱复合散射并行FDTD、串行FDTD以及MoM的比较

    Figure  2.  Comparison of the sea surface with its overlying cylindrical composite scattering by parallel FDTD, FDTD and MoM

    图  3  FEM 计算所得粗糙面与目标复合电磁散射仿真结果

    Figure  3.  Simulation results of the FEM calculation of the composite scattering from the rough surface and the target

    图  4  迭代电流类方法在复合散射中应用 PO-PO与FE-BI-KA仿真结果对比

    Figure  4.  The scattering comparation of PO-PO and FE-BI-KA

    图  5  舰船目标和海面单双站散射

    Figure  5.  Scattering from ship and sea surface

    图  6  OpenGL中物体映射到计算机屏幕示意图

    Figure  6.  Diagram of object mapping to computer screen in openGL

    图  7  飞行器模型坐标示意图

    Figure  7.  Schematic diagram of the aircraft

    图  8  电大飞行器双站散射结果

    Figure  8.  Bistatic scattering of the aircraft

    图  9  Optix射线追踪程序关系示意图

    Figure  9.  Schematic diagram of the relationship between Optix ray tracing programs

    图  10  OptiX中各程序模块的关系及其数据交换示意图

    Figure  10.  Schematic representation of the relationship between the program modules and their data exchange in OptiX

    图  11  大型航母编队示意图

    Figure  11.  Diagram of a large aircraft carrier formation

    图  12  大型航母编队单双站散射结果

    Figure  12.  The scattering results for large carrier formations

    图  13  TDSBR与CST时域回波仿真结果对比

    Figure  13.  Comparison of TDSBR and CST time domain echo simulation results

    图  14  舰船与粗糙面复合散射示意图

    Figure  14.  Schematic of composite scattering from a ship and a rough surface

    图  15  不同带宽(或脉冲宽度下)调制高斯脉冲时域回波

    Figure  15.  Time domain echoes of modulated Gaussian pulses under different bandwidths / pulse widths

    图  16  不同反射次数时域散射回波

    Figure  16.  Scattered echoes in time domain under different number of reflections

    图  17  SBR方法验证与仿真

    Figure  17.  Validation and simulation of SBR method

    图  18  阿利伯克级驱逐舰与海面复合场景

    Figure  18.  Arleigh Burke-class destroyer with sea composite scene

    图  19  三级海况不同舰船方位下舰船以及舰船+目标的一维距离像

    Figure  19.  High resolution range profile of the ship and the ship+target for different ship orientations in three sea states

    图  20  不同海况下舰船与海面复合场景一维距离像对比结果

    Figure  20.  Comparison high resolution range profile of the ship and sea surface composite scenes under different sea conditions

    图  21  不同时刻的破碎波

    Figure  21.  Broking waves at different moments

    图  22  含单卷浪海面散射模型示意图

    Figure  22.  Schematic diagram of a sea surface scattering model with breaking waves

    图  23  SBR-PTD方法与MoM计算结果对比验证

    Figure  23.  Validation of the SBR-PTD against MoM

    图  24  SBR-PTD计算含单卷浪海面的后向RCS

    Figure  24.  RCS of single breaking wave

    图  25  波导出口处场强分布

    Figure  25.  Field intensity distribution at waveguide exit

    图  26  考虑蒸发波导影响下目标散射场功率分布(船头旋转角$ \varphi = 0^\circ $)

    Figure  26.  Target scattered field power distribution considering the effect of evaporative waveguides

    图  27  MoM-PO海面与上方圆柱电磁散射仿真结果

    Figure  27.  scattering results of sea surface and cylindrical with of MoM-PO

    图  28  复杂海面与目标散射成分分析

    Figure  28.  Analysis of the scattering components from complex sea surfaces and targets

    图  29  IPIX雷达编号40#数据不同极化下时空二维杂波图

    Figure  29.  Two-dimensional spatial-temporal clutter maps for different polarizations of IPIX radar number 40# data

    图  30  部署现场平面图

    Figure  30.  The deployment site plan

    图  31  试验架设位置

    Figure  31.  The test stand location

    图  32  对海探测实验点

    Figure  32.  The experimental site for sea dection

    图  33  距离-方位图

    Figure  33.  2D graph of range-azimuth

    图  34  灵山岛综合实验基地

    Figure  34.  Lingshan Island Integrated Experimental Base

    图  35  海塔平台

    Figure  35.  The sea tower platform

    图  36  不同参数下杂波分布的最佳模型

    Figure  36.  Best model for clutter distribution with different parameters

    图  37  3°擦地角U10=15m/s HH极化顺风散射系数时间序列及均值归一化杂波幅值

    Figure  37.  Time series of scattering coefficients and normalized clutter for HH polarization under U10=15m/s and 3° grazing angle

    图  38  入射波频率为1.5 GHz时不同风速后向散射场的多普勒谱

    Figure  38.  Doppler spectra of the backscattered field at different wind speeds for an incident wave frequency of 1.5 GHz

    图  39  复杂海背景下掠海低飞目标的双站RCS和归一化多普勒谱

    Figure  39.  Bistatic RCS and normalized Doppler spectrum of a low-flying target in a complex sea background

    图  40  阿利伯克级舰船与动态海面脉压后的杂波分布图,概率密度分布函数和不同距离单元回波的时间相关性

    Figure  40.  Clutter distribution for an Arleigh Burke-class ship with dynamic sea surface after pulse compression, probability density distribution function and time correlation of echoes at different distance units

    图  41  X波段下杂波多普勒谱($f = 10{\text{GHz}}$)

    Figure  41.  Doppler spectrum at X-band ($f = 10{\text{GHz}}$)

    图  42  HH极化与VV极化下电场幅度比值的时间序列

    Figure  42.  Time series of electric field amplitude ratios under HH polarization and VV polarization

    图  43  含多卷浪海面与目标复合多普勒谱

    Figure  43.  Composite Doppler spectrum of surface and target with multi breaking waves

    图  44  不同海况下掠海巡航导弹目标SAR图像

    Figure  44.  SAR images of missile targets at different sea states

    图  45  不同海况舰船编队SAR图像${\theta _i} = {45^{\text{o}}}$ ${\varphi _i} = {45^{\text{o}}}$

    Figure  45.  SAR images of ship formations in different sea states at ${\theta _i} = {45^{\text{o}}}$ ${\varphi _i} = {45^{\text{o}}}$

    图  46  不同海况舰船编队SAR图像${\theta _i} = {45^{\text{o}}}$ ${\varphi _i} = {90^{\text{o}}}$

    Figure  46.  SAR images of ship formations in different sea states at ${\theta _i} = {45^{\text{o}}}$ ${\varphi _i} = {90^{\text{o}}}$

    图  47  不同海情下SAR图像中目标识别结果

    Figure  47.  Target recognition results in SAR images under different sea states

    表  1  串行FDTD方法及并行FDTD方法计算一个样本耗时对比

    Table  1.   Comparison of the simulation time of a sample by the FDTD method and the parallel FDTD method

    极化方式网格数串行时间/s并行时间/s加速比X
    HH131072250854.423067.7281.77
    VV131072273862.333289.2483.26
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  仿真算例运行时间(秒)

    Table  2.   Simulation time(s)

    模型SBRCUDA-SBR加速比
    舰船+海面双站994.646.327.4x
    舰船+海面单站776.125.730.2x
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  仿真算例的运行时间(秒)

    Table  3.   Running time of the simulation example (s)

    模型三角面片数量SBROpenGL-SBR
    双站:飞行器yoz面15837672.727.13
    双站:飞行器xoz面15837681.848.82
    单站:飞行器yoz面15837656.785.07
    单站:飞行器xoy面15837657.095.12
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  大型航母编队计算时间(秒)

    Table  4.   Simulation times for large carrier formations (s)

    模型三角面片数量SBR一个角度下平均计算时间
    单站:大型航母编队979025137.250.7625
    双站:大型航母编队97902547.927/
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  IPIX雷达主要性能参数

    Table  5.   The key parameters of IPIX radar

    参数数值
    雷达频率9.4 GHz
    中频150 MHz
    脉冲宽度20~5000 ns
    发射峰值功率8 KW
    发射信号波长3 cm
    多普勒频移34 Hz/节
    脉冲重复频率(PRF)0~2000 Hz
    距离分辨率30 m
    半功率点波瓣宽度0.9°
    雷达天线高度30 m
    极化方式HH, VV, HV, VH
    擦地角<1°
    采样距离间隔15 m
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  OTB MS3的主要特性

    Table  6.   The Main characteristics of OTB MS3

    参数数值
    纬度$ 34^\circ 36'55.32''{\text{S}} $
    经度$ 20^\circ 17'20.11''{\text{E}} $
    地面高度53 m
    天线高度56 m
    离海距离1.2 km
    方位角范围208°~ 80°N (SSW-ENE)
    距离(CNR > 15 dB)1.25~4.50 km
    擦地角(< 15 km)3.00°~0.16°
    擦地角(CNR > 15 dB)3.0°~0.7°
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  雷达参数

    Table  7.   The key parameters of Radar

    技术指标参数
    工作频段X
    载频范围9.3~9.5 GHz
    带宽25 MHz
    脉冲重复频率1.6 K,3 K,5 K和10 K
    天线极化方式HH
    天线长度1.8 m
    天线工作模式凝视、圆周扫描
    天线水平波束宽度1.2o
    天线垂直波束宽度22o
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  8  U10=10 m/s不同条件下海杂波幅度最佳拟合模型统计分布

    Table  8.   Best-fit model statistics distribution for sea clutter amplitude at U10=10 m/s

    入射角极化入射频率(GHz)
    10(X)14(Ku)
    30°HHWBWB
    VVWBWB
    45°HHWBWB
    VVKK
    60°HHWBWB
    VVKK
    80°HHRLRL
    VVRLRL
    下载: 导出CSV
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