涡旋电磁波天线技术研究进展

郭忠义 汪彦哲 郑群 尹超逸 杨阳 宫玉彬

郭忠义, 汪彦哲, 郑群, 等. 涡旋电磁波天线技术研究进展[J]. 雷达学报, 2019, 8(5): 631–655. doi: 10.12000/JR19091
引用本文: 郭忠义, 汪彦哲, 郑群, 等. 涡旋电磁波天线技术研究进展[J]. 雷达学报, 2019, 8(5): 631–655. doi: 10.12000/JR19091
GUO Zhongyi, WANG Yanzhe, ZHENG Qun, et al. Advances of research on antenna technology of vortex electromagnetic waves[J]. Journal of Radars, 2019, 8(5): 631–655. doi: 10.12000/JR19091
Citation: GUO Zhongyi, WANG Yanzhe, ZHENG Qun, et al. Advances of research on antenna technology of vortex electromagnetic waves[J]. Journal of Radars, 2019, 8(5): 631–655. doi: 10.12000/JR19091

涡旋电磁波天线技术研究进展

doi: 10.12000/JR19091
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金项目(61775050, 61921002),中央高校基本研究经费(PA2019GDZC0098)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    郭忠义(1981–),男,安徽阜南人,合肥工业大学教授、博士生导师。主要研究方向包括涡旋雷达系统、智能传感系统、偏振智能信息处理、先进光通信技术、复杂电磁环境等。发表SCI检索论文130余篇,被国际国内同行正面引用1400余次。E-mail: guozhongyi@hfut.edu.cn

    汪彦哲(1996–),男,安徽芜湖人,在读硕士。2019年于合肥工业大学计算机与信息学院攻读硕士学位。研究方向为涡旋电磁波天线与涡旋电磁波雷达成像。E-mail: wangyanzhehfut@163.com

    郑群:郑 群(1996–),女,安徽池州人,在读硕士。2017年于合肥工业大学计算机与信息学院攻读硕士学位。研究方向为超表面天线、涡旋电磁波天线,目前发表论文2篇。E-mail: zhengqun1996@163.com

    尹超逸(1994–),男,安徽安庆人,在读硕士。2017年于合肥工业大学计算机与信息学院攻读硕士学位。研究方向为涡旋电磁波天线、共口径天线,目前发表论文1篇。E-mail: yinchaoyi19940918@163.com

    杨阳:杨 阳,男,河南南阳人,在读博士。2015年获得电子科技大学真空电子专业学士学位,目前在电子科技大学微波电真空器件国家重点实验室攻读物理电子学博士学位。研究方向包括浸水天线、OAM天线和微波成像,目前已经发表期刊论文2篇,会议论文5篇。E-mail: yangyang_19930129@163.com

    宫玉彬,男,山东蓬莱人,博士,教授。1998年在电子科技大学获得物理电子专业博士学位。现为电子科技大学特聘教授、微波真空器件国家重点实验室副主任、研究室主任。研究方向包括新的毫米波和太赫兹辐射源,以及生物电磁效应,发表300多篇学术论文,获得科学和学术奖项十多次。E-mail: ybgong@uestc.edu.cn

    通讯作者:

    郭忠义 guozhongyi@hfut.edu.cn

  • 责任主编:崔铁军 Corresponding Editor: CUI Tiejun
  • 中图分类号: TN820

Advances of Research on Antenna Technology of Vortex Electromagnetic Waves

Funds: The National Natural Science Foundation of China (61775050, 61921002), The Fundamental Research Fund for the Central Universities of China (PA2019GDZC0098)
More Information
  • 摘要: 涡旋电磁波,因携带有轨道角动量(OAM),从而体现出除了传统的强度、相位、频率、极化等自由度之外的一种新型自由度,理论上在任意频率下都具有无穷多种互不干扰的正交模态,并且近年来其在雷达成像、无线通信等研究领域展现出重要的应用潜力,所以引起国内外学者的广泛关注,具有很高的研究价值和应用前景。在这里,该文主要介绍近年来涡旋电磁波天线技术的研究进展,包括单一微带贴片天线、阵列天线、行波天线、以及超表面天线结构等。单一微带贴片天线由于其结构简单、制作成本低而被广泛运用;行波天线可以在宽带范围内产生多OAM模式的涡旋电磁波;阵列天线的设计原理简单,可以灵活地控制产生不同模态的高增益OAM电磁波;而超表面天线不需要复杂的馈电网络,从而具有天线整体剖面较低的优势。该文对这4种常见的涡旋电磁波天线进行了总结,并展望了未来的发展趋势。

     

  • 图  1  不同模式OAM波束图

    Figure  1.  Different modes OAM beam pattern

    图  2  单一微带贴片天线

    Figure  2.  Single microstrip patch antenna

    图  3  圆锥共形贴片天线[57]

    Figure  3.  Conical conformal patch antenna[57]

    图  4  谐振腔行波天线

    Figure  4.  Cavity traveling wave antenna

    图  5  螺旋行波天线

    Figure  5.  Spiral traveling wave antenna

    图  6  内外双馈双臂阿基米德螺旋天线[65]

    Figure  6.  Inner and outer dual-fed dual-arm archimedean spiral antenna[65]

    图  7  立体螺旋天线[66]

    Figure  7.  Three-dimensional helical antenna[66]

    图  8  三环嵌套平面等角螺旋线[67]

    Figure  8.  Three-ring nested plane equiangular helix[67]

    图  9  偶极子阵列天线

    Figure  9.  Dipole array antenna

    图  10  微带贴片阵列天线

    Figure  10.  Microstrip patch array antenna

    图  11  其他阵列天线

    Figure  11.  Other array antennas

    图  12  反射型超表面产生OAM波

    Figure  12.  The reflected metasurface generates OAM waves

    图  13  基于二极管可调相位网络结构实现可重构的OAM波[113]

    Figure  13.  Reconfigurable OAM wave based on diode phase adjustable network structure[113]

    图  14  透射型超表面产生OAM波

    Figure  14.  The transmitted metasurface generates OAM waves

    图  15  全息超表面产生OAM波

    Figure  15.  The holographic metasurface generates OAM waves

    图  16  数字编码型超表面产生OAM波

    Figure  16.  The digitally encoded metasurface generates OAM waves

    表  1  单一的微带贴片天线结构产生的涡旋电磁波的性能

    Table  1.   Performances of generating vortex electromagnetic waves a single microstrip patch antenna structure

    天线类型单位时间天线尺寸($ \lambda_0 $)工作频率(GHz)OAM模式增益(dB)
    不规则F形结构[51]北京邮电大学20171.02×1.25×0.0617.00+1/
    规则的椭圆形结构[52]意大利尼科洛库萨诺大学20140.80×0.80×0.012.40+1, +2/
    规则的正八边形结构[53]西安电子科技大学20191.24×1.24×0.022.47+1, –14.8
    规则的圆形结构[54]厦门大学20190.27×0.27×0.01
    0.46×0.46×0.02
    1.62
    2.73
    +1
    +2
    /
    双馈点环形嵌套结构[55]成都电子科技大学2017$ \Phi $2.26×0.035.65+1, –2/
    单馈点环形嵌套结构[56]中国人民大学20181.00×1.00×0.134.65~5.20+2, +31.5, 1.8
    单馈点圆锥共形结构[57]合肥工业大学2019$\Phi $0.53×0.022.40±1, ±26.6
    单馈点环形嵌套结构[58]意大利尼科洛库萨诺大学2017$\Phi $1.00×0.012.00+1/
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  报道的行波天线结构产生OAM波的性能

    Table  2.   Reported performances of generating OAM wave from traveling wave antenna structure

    天线类型单位时间天线尺寸(λ0)工作频率(GHz)OAM模式增益(dB)
    环形谐振腔天线[59-61]浙江大学2015/10.002, 3, 4/
    2017Φ4.1210.00±33.39
    2017Φ20.00×8.4310.00±218.85
    ±319.75
    单臂阿基米德平面螺旋天线[62]云南大学2017Φ0.76×0.011.30~3.251/
    Φ1.57×0.023.45~6.102
    Φ2.79×0.036.25~10.503
    嵌套三维立体螺旋线[63]空军工程大学2019>Φ0.904.80~5.2027.60
    3
    加腔内外馈电阿基米德螺旋线[65]合肥工业大学20192.60×0.803.00±16.70~10.00
    3.47×1.074.00±2
    4.16×1.284.80±3
    加腔三维立体螺旋线[66]合肥工业大学2019Φ0.51×0.130.7604.55
    Φ1.03×0.261.551
    Φ1.63×0.412.452
    四臂等角平面螺旋天线[64]电子科技大学2019Φ2.13×0.035.60~6.000/
    –1
    –2
    –3
    三环嵌套平面等角螺旋线[67]电子科技大学2019Φ3.00×0.573.0016.94
    36.76
    55.49
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  阵列天线结构产生的OAM波的性能

    Table  3.   Reported performances of OAM wave generated by array antenna structure

    阵元结构单位时间天线尺寸(λ0)工作频率(GHz)OAM模式增益(dB)
    微带贴片英国谢菲尔德大学[72]2014Φ2.00×0.0510.00±12.45
    法国雷恩第一大学[73]20150.91×0.69×0.012.50+1/
    意大利帕多瓦大学[74]2015Φ1.60×0.015.750, ±18.35
    上海交通大学[83]20161.67×1.67×0.104.80±19.00
    清华大学[75]20172.03×2.03×0.011.900, ±1, ±2, ±3/
    复旦大学[76]2017Φ4.84×0.035.72~5.95±1/
    中国科学院大学[86]2017Φ6.008.00~12.000, +1, +2, +3/
    西安电子科技大学[53,77,80,82,84]20172.20×2.00×0.105.40~5.60–1
    +1
    7.35
    8.05
    3.10×3.10×0.079.70~10.700
    ±1
    ±2
    ±3
    14.15
    9.55
    9.25
    8.95
    20190.61×0.61×0.022.40–1,–2/
    Φ3.33×0.062.33~2.73±1, ±2, ±36.35
    Φ1.90×0.065.800, –1, –2, –3>6.55
    湖南大学[78]20181.28×1.28×0.072.50+1
    –1
    3.15
    3.05
    内蒙古科技大学[79]2018Φ5.60×0.055.50~6.10
    5.65~6.10
    ±1
    ±2
    0
    9.15
    4.05
    7.45
    电子科技大学[33]20194.85×4.85×0.1413.50~16.70–1, –2/
    韩国牧园大学[85]20197.50×7.5018.00+5/
    北京邮电大学[81]2019Φ1.00×0.021.55±1, +2/
    喇叭上海交通大学[89]2015Φ4.002.200, ±1, ±2, ±3, ±48.75
    国防科技大学[90]2016Φ10.009.900, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5, +6, +7/
    浙江大学[92]20168.86×9.06×0.029.700, ±18.48
    电子科技大学[91]2018Φ0.80×0.342.450, +1, +2, +3/
    偶极子瑞典乌普萨拉大学[43,70]2007Φ4.001.00+1, +2, +4/
    2010Φ1.502.40+1,+2/
    华南理工大学[71]20171.76×1.76×0.012.10~2.70±1/
    Vivaldi北京理工大学[87]2013Φ1.57×1.206.000,±1,±2,±3,+47.00
    电子科技大学[88]2018Φ0.51×0.402.70~2.900, ±2/
    谐振腔华中科技大学[93]2016Φ1.00×0.163.50+1, +2/
    表面等离子体激元东南大学[94]2018Φ3.20×0.065.50
    5.80
    6.00
    6.30
    6.60
    –2
    –1
    0
    +1
    +2
    /
    单臂螺旋西安电子科技大学[95]2018Φ5.33×0.473.40~4.70+1, +2, +38.50
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  产生OAM波的超表面天线及性能

    Table  4.   The metasurface antennas and their properties for generating OAM waves

    天线类型单位时间天线尺寸(λ0)工作频率(GHz)OAM模式增益(dB)
    反射型超表面西安电子科技大学[98-104]201610.00×10.00×0.125.801; 2; 4/
    201610.00×10.00×0.125.80x极化1, y极化2/
    201610.00×10.00×0.075.50~6.501, 1; 1, 2/
    201710.00×10.00×0.075.801, 2/
    201812.60×12.60×0.2210.001/
    20188.82×8.82×0.16
    14.70×14.70×0.26
    6.00
    10.00
    1, –1(±30°)
    1, –1(±30°)
    17.7
    19.8
    201810.50×10.50×0.139.00~11.00119.9
    衡阳师范学院[107]20176.72×6.72×0.136.95~18.001; 2/
    浙江大学[108]2017Φ7.00×0.1010.000; 1; 210
    东南大学[105]201812.50×12.50×3.0040.25–1/
    安徽大学[106]20192.38×2.38×0.075.00~6.30–1, 0, 111.05
    南京航空航天大学[109]2019Φ6.46×0.1518.00~42.001, 3/
    北京邮电大学[110]2019Φ15.00×0.105.00~7.50417.93
    华南理工大学[111]20193.87×3.87×0.115.801; 2; 3; 415.4
    中国科学院[112]20198.50×8.50×0.10
    4.20×4.20×0.05
    5.20
    10.50~12.00
    1
    2
    /
    合肥工业大学[113]20193.50×3.50×0.10300.00–1, –2, –3, 1, 2, 3>20
    透射型超表面北京大学[114]20155.00×5.00×0.0811.802/
    香港大学[119,120]20179.60×9.60×0.0517.852; 4/
    20174.58×4.58×0.0517.85–1, –2, 0, 1, 2/
    浙江大学[121]20186.90×7.30×2.6010.00–1, –2, –3, –4 1, 2, 3, 4/
    南京理工大学[126]20189.40×9.40×0.7632.90~36.80x极化–1, y极化215
    西安电子科技大学[115-118]201718.60×18.60×0.6810.002/
    20184.67×4.67×0.1510.00114.5
    20189.20×9.20×0.2313.00~15.00x极化0, y极化126, 20
    20194.80×4.80×0.209.60~10.321; 2; 3/
    上海交通大学[122]20196.00×6.00×0.0510.001; 2/
    哈尔滨工业大学[123]20198.00×8.00×0.1510.00~11.301/
    空军工程大学[124]20194.88×4.88×0.1414.001/
    中国科学院[125]20195.25×5.25×0.1010.00210.85
    全息超表面香港大学[127]20163.50×3.50×0.106.202; 4/
    西安电子科技大学[128,129]201920.20×20.20×0.1120.00–1, 1(±30°)/
    201920.20×20.20×0.1120.001; 2; 3/
    数字编码型超表面西安电子科技大学[130,131]20186.30×6.30×0.044.751, 2/
    20186.67×6.67×0.045.001(0°, 30°)
    2(0°, 20°)
    /
    空军工程大学[132-134]20189.00×9.00×0.066.001/
    20188.84×8.84×0.088.50x-极化–2, 2
    y-极化–1, 1
    /
    20195.85×5.85×0.077.10~7.50
    7.00~7.50
    –1
    1
    14.7
    11.1
    东南大学[135-137]201712.00×12.00×0.1014.50~15.501(±30°)/
    2017Φ15.00×0.1515.00x-极化1
    y-极化–1
    /
    20194.80×4.80×0.0510.001, –1/
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2019-10-02
  • 修回日期:  2019-10-18
  • 网络出版日期:  2019-10-25

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