高分辨率星载SAR成像与图像质量提升方法综述

李春升 于泽 陈杰

李春升, 于泽, 陈杰. 高分辨率星载SAR成像与图像质量提升方法综述[J]. 雷达学报, 2019, 8(6): 717–731. doi: 10.12000/JR19085
引用本文: 李春升, 于泽, 陈杰. 高分辨率星载SAR成像与图像质量提升方法综述[J]. 雷达学报, 2019, 8(6): 717–731. doi: 10.12000/JR19085
LI Chunsheng, YU Ze, and CHEN Jie. Overview of techniques for improving high-resolution spaceborne SAR imaging and image quality[J]. Journal of Radars, 2019, 8(6): 717–731. doi: 10.12000/JR19085
Citation: LI Chunsheng, YU Ze, and CHEN Jie. Overview of techniques for improving high-resolution spaceborne SAR imaging and image quality[J]. Journal of Radars, 2019, 8(6): 717–731. doi: 10.12000/JR19085

高分辨率星载SAR成像与图像质量提升方法综述

doi: 10.12000/JR19085
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(61861136008)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    李春升(1963–),男,天津人,北京航空航天大学,教授,博士生导师,主要从事星载SAR系统总体与仿真、多源遥感图像信息融合、信息获取与处理等方面的研究工作。E-mail: lichunsheng@buaa.edu.cn

    于泽:于 泽(1979–),男,博士,副教授,现任职于北京航空航天大学电子信息工程学院。分别于2002年、2007年在北京航空航天大学获得学士学位和博士学位。目前主要研究方向包括天基雷达系统体制设计、高分辨SAR成像处理、稀疏目标特征重建等。E-mail: yz613@buaa.edu.cn

    陈杰:陈 杰(1973–),教授、博士生导师,长期从事高分辨率微波遥感信息系统理论与方法研究。2005年获得北京市高等教育成果二等奖,2006年入选教育部“新世纪优秀人才支持计划”,2008年获霍英东教育基金会第十一届高等院校青年教师奖三等奖。承担国家自然科学基金、“973”计划、“863”计划、国家重大专项等多项课题。已发表论文100余篇,其中SCI(E)检索15篇,EI检索80余篇。申请国家发明专利20余项,合作编写教材4部,合作出版译著1部。E-mail: chenjie@buaa.edu.cn

    通讯作者:

    李春升 lichunsheng@buaa.edu.cn

    于泽 yz613@buaa.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: TN958

Overview of Techniques for Improving High-resolution Spaceborne SAR Imaging and Image Quality

Funds: The National Natural Science Foundation of China (61861136008)
More Information
  • 摘要: 作为一种重要的空间遥感信息获取工具,星载合成孔径雷达(SAR)具备高分辨率宽测绘、多方位信息获取、高时相对地观测、3维地形测绘等多种工作体制和模式。对于任何星载SAR系统,获取高质量的图像始终是提升SAR应用效能的前提。该文基于“观测在天,成像在地”的理念,分析了卫星轨道、平台姿态、有效载荷、地面处理等环节中星载SAR成像和图像质量的影响因素;阐释了中央电子设备幅相补偿与动态调整、天线方向图预估等高精度数据获取技术;给出了基于改进运动模型的星载SAR成像补偿和对流层传播效应补偿方法,能够实现优于0.3 m分辨率的成像;总结和对比了相干斑噪声抑制、方位模糊抑制和旁瓣抑制等SAR图像处理技术,可以使得等效视数优于25、方位模糊和旁瓣抑制优于20 dB。

     

  • 图  1  星载SAR对地观测示意图

    Figure  1.  Observation geometry of spaceborne SAR

    图  2  星载SAR有效载荷基本结构示意图

    Figure  2.  Diagram of the basic structure of the spaceborne SAR payload

    图  3  MGC反演前后的成像结果

    Figure  3.  Imaging results before and after MGC inversion

    图  4  星载SAR天线系统优化和方向图预估技术示意图

    Figure  4.  Diagram of optimization and pattern estimation technology for spaceborne SAR antenna system

    图  5  停走误差补偿前后成像结果对比图

    Figure  5.  Comparison of imaging results before and after the compensation of stop-go phase error

    图  6  原始SAR图像和斑点噪声抑制后的结果

    Figure  6.  Results of speckle suppression

    图  7  方位模糊抑制效果

    Figure  7.  Azimuth ambiguity suppression result

    图  8  SVA处理结果

    Figure  8.  SVA result

    图  9  SAR图像质量提升方法总结

    Figure  9.  Summary of SAR image quality improvement methods

    表  1  实时定轨和事后定轨比较

    Table  1.   Comparison between real-time and precise orbit determination

    输入数据类型数据时效性定轨精度
    实时定轨广播星历+双频伪距
    载波观测数据
    实时米级
    事后定轨IGS最终产品+双频伪距
    载波观测数据
    12–18天厘米级
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  通道误差补偿前后脉冲压缩性能

    Table  2.   Performance of pulse compression before and after compensating for channel error

    幅相误差分辨率(m)展宽系数峰值旁瓣比(dB)积分旁瓣比(dB)
    无补偿0.23921.0800–6.41–5.85
    补偿0.22321.0077–13.25–9.97
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  仿真参数

    Table  3.   Simulation parameters

    参数数值参数数值
    轨道倾角98.06°波束宽度(方位向)0.305°
    轨道高度680 km斜视角±6.21°
    偏心率0.001信号带宽1.0 GHz
    观测视角35°脉冲宽度40 μs
    波长0.03 m脉冲重复频率4000 Hz
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  停走误差补偿前后成像质量评估结果

    Table  4.   Imaging quality evaluation of point target before and after compensating for stop-go error

    分辨率(m)峰值旁瓣比(dB)积分旁瓣比(dB)
    距离向补偿前0.1444–15.42–12.51
    补偿后0.1342–13.13–9.80
    方位向补偿前0.2420–11.98–9.79
    补偿后0.2170–13.32–10.41
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  不同视角下目标对流层延迟补偿前后对比

    Table  5.   Evaluation results before and after tropospheric delay compensation with different looking angles

    视角(°)对流层延迟补偿前方位向性能对流层延迟补偿后方位向性能
    分辨率(m)PSLR(dB)ISLR(dB)分辨率(m)PSLR(dB)ISLR(dB)
    150.272–12.448–9.2130.270–13.246–10.150
    350.272–12.033–8.9380.269–13.223–10.319
    550.294–8.579–5.8600.275–13.240–10.069
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  斑点噪声抑制指标

    Table  6.   Speckle noise suppression performance

    图像ENL1ENL2EPI
    图6(a)0.99960.9682
    图6(b)36.333826.30640.9484
    图6(c)1.04201.0051
    图6(d)67.272736.55820.9480
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2019-09-21
  • 修回日期:  2019-11-30
  • 网络出版日期:  2019-12-27

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